Osteoblastoma: principal, symptoms and treatment of tumor bone
Osteoblastoma: a tumor, the removal of which is necessary not always
A bone tumor is the appearance of tumors in the bones.
The disease is quite rare – the share it accounts for about 1% of cancer patients. Most often affects the leg bones and skull.
Bone cancer – the notion of a collective, combining both primary tumors (osteosarcoma, osteoma), or secondary resulting from metastasis from other organs.
What is an osteoblastoma?
Osteoblastoma is a benign neoplasm of bone tissue, one of the types of osteomas.
Most often the disease begins in childhood and adolescence up to 30 years, only 10% of cases of this disease were registered among people of the older age.
Men are afflicted more often than women twice.
Develops compared with osteoid osteoma, quickly and in size ranges from 2-10 cm
Usually is painless but may be accompanied by dull pain and other symptoms when exposed to adjacent organs and tissues. The treatment is usually surgical, but it can not be deleted if it does not cause discomfort and is not a cosmetic flaw.
Often the disease is confused with osteophytes. Osteophytes is a bone outgrowths that appear with age, almost 100% of the population and are not related to the tumors.
Varieties of tumors
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Distinguish 2 varieties osteoblastoma:
- Fancy consists of a large number of multinucleated cells. Usually has a favorable prognosis.
- Aggressive – the disease occurs with relapses and is very common in people over the age of 30. Having clear boundaries, it is, nonetheless, can penetrate the adjacent bone, quickly increasing in size.
What may be called education?
The cause of education has not been fully determined.
To trigger the development of the disease may trauma, systematically repeated exposure (for example, the syndrome of a cavalryman from riders), hypothermia.
Most often there are such reasons, as:
- heredity (probability of transmission to children in the region of 50 %);
- congenital abnormality;
- syphilis in its advanced stage;
- violation of calcium metabolism.
Risk factors are constant colds and inflammatory diseases, reduced immunity, metabolic disorders.
Large role played by the systematic generation of the same injury is common in athletes during training or an arrow.
The disease begins to manifest itself at a young age, while the body is still growing. With age, the tumor increases.
The location of the tumor
In most cases (about 50%) osteoblastoma localized in the area of the spine, leading to the development of scoliosis.
Also the pathology of the affected shoulder, femur, and tibia. Can develop in the places of attachment of tendons and joints, as well as in the area of the fingers and toes.
Multiple tumors are rare. As the tumor of this kind is benign, metastases to other organs, it does not.
Identify and diagnose the tumor
The tumor of small size may be undetectable for a long time, it manifests itself by the appearance of a solid lump, usually painless.
When compression of nerves or vessels may experience discomfort, pain, foreign body sensation.
Often occurs entirely asymptomatic and is detected only on x-ray.
Depending on the localisation of osteoblastoma differ and symptoms:
- With the localization on the bones of the skeleton possible nagging muscle pain, impaired motor activity, discomfort or pain during movement. Perhaps the development of inflammatory diseases of the joints.
- With the defeat of the skull you may have headaches, nosebleeds, shortness of breath, pain in the throat. You may experience dizziness, epileptic seizures, blindness, drooping of the eyelid, bulging of the eyeball. With the defeat of the jaw bone characterized by reduced motor function.
- The most dangerous is the development of a tumor inside the skull. It is fraught with such consequences as memory loss, hormone disruption, increased intracranial pressure, epileptic seizures and disturbance of other bodily functions, depending on the areas of the brain exposed.
On the basis of the clinical picture, the doctor prescribes x-ray diffraction study. In the picture you will see the hearth swollen oval-shaped, circumferentially small halo of sclerosis.
The study will show the affected area, size, and comorbidities.
As the main method of diagnosis of osteoblastoma, radiography effective in the study of medium and large tumors.
It will help to determine the type of tumor – solid, spongy or mozgovitsa, as well as the impact of it on other tissues, the presence of destruction of the bone structure.
Additional methods of diagnostics directed on definition of diagnosis and effective in small tumors. These include:
- computed tomography;
- magnetic resonance imaging;
- histological study;
- bone scintigraphy.
Osteoblastoma is removed surgically, this method is shown in the following cases:
- the tumor interferes with the functioning of body systems;
- the tumor is a cosmetic defect;
- there is a delay in the development or remodeling of bone;
- began rapidly increasing in size (very rarely).
The majority of shows systematic observation. In the case of spillover effects (pain, problems with joints) and symptomatic treatment. Often prescribed anti-inflammatory and pain medications.
To exclude recurrence of the removal occurs with truncation healthy area of bone.
Surgical removal can be of two types:
- Surgery. Depending on the lesion surgical intervention is performed traumatologists, orthopedic surgeons or specialists in oral and maxillofacial surgery.
- Evaporation. Removal of tumors with a laser. This method is less traumatic, and the rehabilitation period is much shorter.
As the size of tumors large enough – it can reach 10 cm, often after removing it requires plastic.
What are the chances of success?
The operation performed in children, usually have a favorable prognosis.
Relapses after surgery occur in 20% of cases.
The most dangerous tumors in the craniofacial area. The mortality rate in such cases is 3%.
Osteoblastoma may cause the development of secondary osteogenic sarcoma – occurs in 25% of patients.
Removal of a tumor of large size or located in a conspicuous place, fraught with cosmetic defects. Small tumors are removed without a trace, and large tumors require a second stage of treatment – plastic surgery.
Specific prevention does not exist. It is necessary to maintain the body in form, to comply with diet and sleep. You need to remember that people with good metabolism and a strong immune system the risk of developing the disease is much lower.
Upon detection of bone seals it is necessary to consult a doctor and keep them under surveillance.
Osteoblastoma is a benign tumor in the bone, which makes itself felt in childhood and adolescence. It develops for a long time and can give relapses or, in rare cases, be modified in cancer.
Is not dangerous if affects nearby organs and does not affect functions of the body. Treatment is only by surgery. With timely treatment in medical centers and careful attention to their health negative effects of developing the disease is easy to avoid.