Osteochondroma (bone cartilaginous exostosis): symptoms and treatment
How to prevent, detect and cure osteochondroma?
A growth or tumor is called a cluster of cells that divide rapidly and in unlimited quantities. Such a cell cluster may form in any organ. Bones are no exception.
Causes of tumors in most cases are not the exact etiology. Some tumors appear to be due to genetic nature.
Tumors are benign or malignant (cancer). Sometimes benign tumors are transformed into malignant ones.
Bone and cartilage tumor
One of the benign tumors of bone is osteochondroma. A tumor formed of bone and cartilage cells.
This smooth and shiny growth of the bones resulting from broken enchondral ossification.
Education is a Foundation of bone, containing bone marrow tissue and covered with cartilage tissue. Distinguish between a solitary exostosis (individual education) and multiple.
Under a layer of cartilage, otherwise known as cap, is a bone which is located under the trabecular bone. In the center is the bone marrow associated with bone marrow channels of the parent bone.
The tumor is often located in cancellous bone. Sometimes above it formed a bag filled with cartilaginous tissue.
This kind of tumor is the most common among the types of benign tumors of the bone. Percentage relative to all benign tumors is about 40% relative to tumors of the bone – 12 %.
Education, in most cases, are not related to any feelings. Large tumors can cause discomfort during movement.
Patients accidentally find osteochondroma palpation of any area of the body. Sometimes the tumor appears to oseltamivir is made by radiographs or during examination for other reasons.
Background of tumor formation
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Bone cartilaginous exostosis is most commonly observed in childhood and adolescence (ten to twenty years).
Tumor growth occurs during growth of the skeleton with the same intensity as the bones of the skeleton. Stops tumor growth when the child’s skeleton was formed.
Very rarely a lump appears and grows at an older age after 30 years.
A child’s bones have a thicker cartilage layer, which as they grow becomes thinner and turns into a thin plate.
The causes of akolosov:
- as a result of injuries;
- after receiving the radiation;
- endocrine disorders;
- the inflammatory process.
The reason for the growing tumor, in the opinion of the majority of orthopedists and traumatologists may be malformations of the skeleton.
The most common reason for the formation of bone and cartilage akolosov is getting sick in childhood radiation therapy.
In this case, can develop multiple razrostanie. According to statistics, it occurs in 12% of irradiated.
Another reason is hereditary disease. Detected the disease in adolescence. Is the disease autosomal dominant type.
Also, in some cases, there is the appearance of akolosov after injury. Tumors are formed due to improper healing of the bone in the former site of hemorrhage. This may occur in cases where the damaged periosteum.
Localization of education
The formation of bone and cartilage akolosov occurs mainly near the long bones near joints. Tumor growth
in the direction away from the joint.
In relation to the bones of education stationary. Their size can reach several tens of centimeters.
Often osteochondroma is observed on:
- the tibia and the femur;
- less often they appear on the bones of the forearm;
- is also observed in pelvic bones, shoulder blades, vertebrae, ribs and clavicle.
The rare case is the formation of such tumors on the phalanges. They are entities under the nails, reaching a centimeter in diameter.
As a result of tumor growth, the nail begins to flake off, the patient may experience pain.
Education in other parts of the body usually pronounced pain and discomfort does not deliver. With the appearance of pain can be suspected degeneration neoplasm malignant.
Stages of development
There are three stages of tumor development:
- Stage 1 of the disease. Is the development of a tumor from epifizarnah plate – the piece of cartilage located in the long tubular bones. Thanks to this disc, bones grow. Oceanodroma at this stage is composed of cartilage tissue and not detectable.
- Stage 2. Education in the center of the ossified, the outside is covered with a thin layer of cartilage. This fabric grows, education this increases in size.
- Stage 3. Tumor growth occurs by thickening of the cartilage of her shell. The tumor may extend beyond the bone and become visible. The patient may have difficulties with movement and pain.
The complexity of the symptoms
Usually osteochondroma asymptomatic. In cases of large formations, patients may experience discomfort. When the pressure of the growing tumor on nerve endings can experience pain.
The rapid growth of tumors are dangerous because the tumor may mutate and degenerate into malignant.
The first symptom of the degeneration of education into a malignant is its rapid growth.
Diagnosis of the disease includes the following types of research:
- magnetic resonance imaging;
- clinical trial;
- taking tissue for biopsy.
The x-rays in patients with visible changes of bone contour. It is the result of tumor formation and the surface of which resembles a cauliflower with rough edges.
Sometimes tumors firmly attached to the bone, and some connected with her thick legs.
On images of the cartilage layer is not visible, with the exception of foci of calcification.
Treatment: objectives and methods
Treatment osteochondroma begin with taking a tissue biopsy. The aim of the study is the exclusion of malignant transformation.
Treatment plan bone cartilage akolosov individually.
While surgical treatment is resection of the tumor. The surgeon grasps a portion of healthy tissue.
The goal of treatment is to remove the whole area containing the tumor. Therefore, the tumor is removed by the unit, not partially.
After removal of tumors with a piece of bone usually bone reconstruction is required.
Cut the fabric is definitely sent for a biopsy.
After surgery the patient is in stationary conditions is drug therapy. The joint at two weeks immobilized with plaster splints. After discharge, the patient is monitored throughout the year.
If the tumor is located on the back of the bone, resection of the starting to do with tissue, healthy bones, gradually going deeper inside. The tumor was removed together with the base and part of the bone. After surgery the operated area applied bus.
In severe cases, removed part of the bone, and the bone completely. Then there is a need in the arthroplasty implant personal.
In children, it sets a special design, the height of which increases as the child grows.
The prognosis is favorable
In most cases, with successful treatment the prognosis is favorable. Relapses usually do not occur.
Degeneration of the solitary tumors in malignant statistically occurs in 2% of cases, multiple education reborn in 5% of cases.
The change is typical for tumors located in the pelvic bones and shoulder blades. This is manifested by the rapid growth of education, and sometimes pain. The increase is due to the cartilage component.
How to prevent the danger?
As a preventive measure to avoid injuries, fractures, to monitor the current of hereditary diseases. Also children predisposed to this disease on hereditary indicators need to undergo an annual rentgenologicheski study.
Osteochondroma – a disease that requires constant monitoring of a physician. When pain, difficulty of movement or strange kind of education, prosuvalisya in any part of the body, it is impossible to delay visiting the doctor and hope that the disease will pass by itself.
Health is the most valuable wealth of a person that can’t lose.