Osteoma of the knee joint

Joint diseases are characterized by pathological changes in the tissues, but in some cases, the disease may develop due to the appearance of tumors, which impede the normal operation of the joint. Malignant tumors are the result of the growth and spread of cancer cells, which inevitably destroy the tissues of the body. If the tumor has a benign nature, the diagnosis is «osteoma of the knee». This disease has a favorable course and successfully treated by modern medicine.

Остеома коленного сустава

A benign tumor of the knee, in contrast to malignant tumors, almost never have metastatic disease, that is not extended to nearby tissues. In medical practice there were no cases when an osteoma grows into a malignant tumor. If the tumor appears in the region of the knee joint, it is defined as osteoid osteoma – a tumor located on the bone tissue. In most cases, the tumor is isolated and localized to the site of education. An exception is Gardner’s disease, which is characterized by the occurrence of multiple tumors in different parts of the body.


The causes of the disease

Osteoid osteoma is formed of bone material for its growth are osteoblasts, the future bone cells. This pathology of the knee joint has no initial of the agent, which with high probability will trigger the development of the disease, which complicates the process of prevention of the disease. Most often tumors of the knee joint occur in young people and adolescents aged 6 to 20 years due to the active formation of bone tissue. In addition to the age predisposition, there are several possible reasons, which in varying degrees can contribute to the formation of the osteoma of the knee joint.

  • Heredity. According to medical studies, 50% of predisposition to bone tumors is inherited. If your ancestors in the direct ascending line were observed in this pathology, you likely are at risk.
  • Anomalies of fetal development. The formation of an osteoma of the knee may contribute to defects of embryonic development. If the mother drinks during pregnancy, drugs, abuse alcohol, poor feeding, chronic diseases, etc. – it can create the probability of formation of osteomas of the future child.
  • Injury. Heavy damage, affecting the bone structure, can trigger the development of this disease due to the unpredictability of post-traumatic consequences.Остеома коленного сустава
  • Of metabolic disorders. Disorders of calcium metabolism in the body often provoke different pathologies of the bone tissue, including the formation of osteoid osteoma.
  • Infectious diseases. Severe chronic pathology of infectious and/or inflammatory nature, such as syphilis, rheumatism and others, can lead to pathological changes in the bone tissue, including the formation of benign tumors.
  • Diseases of the joints. Pathology of the joint that lead to degenerative tissue changes, such as dissecting osteochondrosis (disease Koenig), arthrosis, arthritis, etc., often accompanied by benign tumors.
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    Dissecting osteochondrosis, characterized by the separation of the cartilage from the bone surfaces, often attached to the diagnosis of «osteoma». When dissecting osteochondrosis in the joint cavity is formed the foreign body, which floats freely in the synovial fluid. If dissecting osteochondrosis are not differentiated, it can be attributed to the class of osteomas because of the uncertainty of the nature of the foreign body, thereby not excluding the presence of tumors.

    Dissecting spinal degeneration and osteoma are different in nature, despite the absence of mutually exclusive manifestations. This fact is especially true given the fact that osteoid osteoma may develop on the background of a dissecting osteochondrosis.


    The main symptoms

    Osteoma of the knee joint develops very slowly: the first time after its formation, the patient may not feel any discomfort or discomfort. The growth of the tumor begins to obstruct the motor function of the knee and squeeze the nerve, if its location is near the location of the nerve endings. Disease symptoms arise as the tumors increase. The incubation period of the disease depends on the individual characteristics of the body, initial size and growth rate of the tumor.

    Osteoma of the knee is characterized by the following symptoms.

    Symptoms The clinical picture
    Pain. The tumor in the joints of the joint causes discomfort when walking, as the growth of the tumor go into a sharp pain. Pain is most intense during the activity of the affected joint. With a strong growth of the osteoma can compress nerves and surrounding tissue, which leads to persistent pain.
    Lameness. Pain the affected knee forces the patient to protect the foot when walking. The man begins to limp and fall on leg.
    Swelling. Quite a large tumor visible to the naked eye and detectable by palpation. Osteoma is the small swelling that can be firm or soft to the touch, depending on the structure of the tumor.
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    The diagnosis of benign tumors is carried out exclusively through medical examination, without which, in this case, it is impossible to build any conclusions. Only after a series of tests can truthfully say about the nature of the tumor, guarantee the absence of metastases and extent of disease progression. At home you can just carefully monitor their health and the appearance of the above symptoms, immediately consult a doctor.

    Given the small initial size of the tumor, early detection of the pathology is possible only by means of the annual preventive examination.


    Treatment and prevention

    Treatment of the osteoma responsive: through surgery, the tumor is removed and the joint gets back functionality. Corrective surgery is not particularly complicated, but partially affects the bone tissue. After the procedure provides postoperative period.

    In modern medicine also practiced corrective treatment with laser – vaporization, whereby the tumor is evaporated by the laser beam. An advantage of laser correction surgery is less damage to surrounding tissue and a shorter postoperative period. Surgical removal of the osteoma allows to completely cure the disease, recurrent tumor operated almost never occur.

    If the tumor is small and not progressing, you can do without corrective surgical intervention, limiting passive surveillance. This decision is not treatment resulting osteoma will resolve on their own – but it gives you the opportunity to avoid surgery, which involves the risk of complications. The justification for condition monitoring of the tumor without any external influences depends entirely on the decision of the attending physician, not the preferences of the patient. Progressive tumor will increasingly affect the functionality of the joint and is subject to mandatory removal.

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    Prevention of tumors in the region of the knee joint is to carefully monitor their health. This is especially true if one of your relatives suffered or are suffering this disease in inheritance causes, in this case, you must exercise routine medical examinations to determine the presence of tumors. Inflammatory diseases of the joints it is time to treat and to prevent their transition into a chronic form. Regulation of calcium will also reduce the probability of formation of osteomas.

    In all types of serious injuries of joints it is essential to consult a doctor to prevent complications.