Osteomyelitis: treatment and prevention of disease complications

Treatment of osteomyelitis. Prevention and possible complications

Osteomyelitis is a dangerous pathology that is associated with the introduction of bacteria into the bone tissue.

The result is the development of inflammation that requires urgent medical care.

If time does not address to the expert, will develop serious consequences that will adversely affect the quality of human life.

General information

The term «osteomyelitis» means inflammation of the bone marrow, which usually captures the cortex and the periosteum. If the process starts with tissue adjacent to the bone, to the truth of osteomyelitis, the case could not be reached – in this case, the inflammation will affect only the periosteum and superficial layers of the bone. While the deeper layers remain untouched.

Preventive measures to prevent development of the disease

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Prevention of osteomyelitis is in compliance with the following rules:

  1. Treating wounds and cuts with alcohol, do not touch them with dirty hands.
  2. After fractures or serious damage, immediately contact the doctor.
  3. Attentive to their health.

Methods of treatment of the disease

Osteomyelitis treatment folk remedies

For the treatment of osteomyelitis can be applied traditional methods. To osteomyelitis treatment at home was effective is to follow the recipes of traditional medicine:

  1. Take the flowers of Arnica Montana and add to them a glass of alcohol or vodka. Mixture infuse 10 days, then strain it and drink 30 drops half an hour before a meal.
  2. Chop the onion and soap. To make this composition a compress and apply to the affected area for half an hour several times a day.
  3. Every morning you should drink the fresh juice of beets and carrots. The juices of these vegetables should be mixed in the ratio of 2:5.
  4. If a person is diagnosed with osteomyelitis of the femur or tibia, the affected areas can be cleaned with a freshly squeezed aloe juice.
  5. To get rid of the pus, you can use the decoction of chamomile. To do this, take 100 grams of chamomile, add 2 cups of boiling water and cook for 15 minutes. The mixture to cool and soak a clean cloth in it. Use the tools to RUB the surface of the affected areas.
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Antibiotic therapy

Treatment of osteomyelitis is based on a complex implementation of conservative and radical procedures. The basis of conservative therapy is the use of antibacterial drugs broad spectrum. Often prescribed a combination of 2-3 tools. The treatment of this disease is usually 4-6 weeks.

Antimicrobial drugs can be administered only after the materials were taken for planting. Typically used high doses of drugs that are active against Staphylococcus aureus:

  • oxacillin;
  • vancomycin;
  • cephalosporins;
  • nafcillin.

If there is a suspicion of the presence of gram-negative microflora, can be assigned to cephalosporins of the third generation. Patients with mild forms of the disease, which clearly comply with all medical advice, can be treated on an outpatient basis. In this case, appropriate treatment of osteomyelitis with antibiotics, which are administered less frequently – for example, Ceftriaxone or vancomycin.

Detoxification therapy

In the period of the introduction of antibacterial drugs the patient is assigned disintoxication therapy. It involves injecting into the bloodstream saline. Can also be used laser elimination of toxins. In some cases, you may be given medication to strengthen the immune system and probiotics to help restore intestinal microflora.

Surgery

Surgical treatment of osteomyelitis is required for treatment of a purulent focus and removal of the sequestrum, which represent areas of devitalized bone tissue. Also for the treatment of osteomyelitis may require reconstructive surgery.

As a rule, their conduct because of the formation of defects of skin or bone tissue. To restorative procedures include fillings bone special preparations, closure of defects using local fabrics, the conduct of osteosynthesis. In some cases, excision of the diseased or dead area of bone.

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Video: what is the procedure for chronic post-traumatic osteomyelitis

Complications of osteomyelitis

In the absence of adequate treatment of osteomyelitis can lead to quite serious consequences.

All complications are divided into two groups — local and General.

The first group included the following:

  1. Abscess – accumulation of pus in the soft tissues.
  2. Phlegmon – purulent infiltration of the soft tissues surrounding the bone.
  3. Suppurative arthritis inflammation of the joint, which is near the area affected with osteomyelitis.
  4. Spontaneous fractures usually occur at low loads and associated with loss of bone strength.
  5. Contractures – loss of mobility due to the formation of scars in the muscles, which are located near the purulent focus.
  6. Ankylosis – loss of mobility in the joints that are affected purulent arthritis.
  7. The development of malignant tumors.

Complications of a General nature include:

  1. Sepsis – blood poisoning.
  2. Amyloidosis, an autoimmune disease, which primarily affects the kidneys.
  3. Secondary anemia – anemia that develops because of violations of the processes of hematopoiesis due to chronic inflammatory process.

The prognosis for complete cure of osteomyelitis

On the healing process of a person directly affect his immune system, age, stage of disease development. Of course, the restoration of function of the affected area largely depends on the effectiveness of the therapy.

Often there is a need in the surgical treatment of osteomyelitis. About the positive effect of such therapy can be the case that three years after the operation the man had no recurrence of the disease.

Duration of disability may be about a year – it all depends on prevalence of inflammatory process and speed the closure of the defect. If the disease has led to disturbances in the musculoskeletal system, there is a need in the assignment of patient disability.

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If you suspect the development of osteomyelitis, you should immediately consult a doctor. It is not necessary to self-medicate, because without proper rehabilitation of the affected area is impossible to get rid of the disease. In addition, it is important to remember that advanced forms of the disease can cause dangerous complications.