Osteoporosis of the spine
Osteoporosis of the spine occurs primarily in the elderly. The disease belongs to the category of systemic pathologies associated with the loosening of the bone tissue. The symptoms of the disease manifest themselves even for minor damage to cervical and other vertebral areas of the limbs. Bone substance is absorbed, its structure becomes sparse. Due to leaching of calcium, lowering its concentration in the bone tissue decreases the density of bones.
Acute calcium deficiency and a violation of the mechanism of assimilation of this element provoke the development of osteoporosis, especially in the field of cervical. To treat the disease must be in the early stages to prevent large-scale destruction of the skeleton. In advanced form of disease, a bone fracture can occur with minor injury or compression.
The classification of the varieties of the disease
There are four types of osteoporosis that are characterized by their distinctive features. Modern medicine identifies the following forms of the disease:
Postmenopausal form develops in women after menopause. Symptoms usually appear in the first 7-10 years after the last menstrual bleeding. The disease affects the cervical region, lumbar, sacral. Need to start treating the pathology, as manifested alarming symptoms. A diet rich in calcium.
Combined kind has the signs of age-related changes in bone structure and symptoms postmenopausal varieties. Senile osteoporosis occurs as a result of violations of the mechanism of bone regeneration. At the age of 50 years possible local damage to the spine. If it is not time to start treatment, the disease is actively progressing, resulting in the defeat will affect other bones of the skeleton. In this regard, developing the so-called diffuse osteoporosis of the spine affecting the cervical region, arms, legs, pelvis.
Classification of the disease on the possible consequences based on the presence or absence of pathological fracture. Different levels of deformation of the vertebrae with osteoporosis allows to distinguish three stages of diseases – mild, medium, pronounced. If at a moderate strain of the symptoms of pathology are absent or poorly expressed, even at the middle stage changes in the structure of the spine can be seen on the radiograph. Additional symptoms – back pain, discomfort in the cervical, lumbar.
Severe deformation of the vertebrae is accompanied by chronic pain, a pathological stoop sometimes due to weak bones can even occur fracture of the spine.
External signs of the disease
If you have dull back pain that will not go away for a few days and increase from a minor load, it suggests osteoporosis. First and foremost, there is a loss of thoracic. Further injury of the cervical, lumbar, and scapular region. There appears localized pain area. This condition resembles the symptoms of degenerative disc disease, and usually the patient begins to treat this disease. Such actions are wrong, because it is necessary to accurately identify the pathology of the spine, to immediately apply appropriate treatment.
Many patients have backache, the pain experienced in the hip joints, rump. With the development of bone lesions arise accompanying symptoms:
- man gets tired quickly, he has reduced working capacity;
- changing shape, bulging belly, disappears visually the waist line;
- the spine is bent in the lumbar region, there is a hump, formed the stoop;
- the spine is deformed, damaged nerve roots;
- restricted mobility of the spine.
For many people these symptoms go unnoticed, they are attributed to other, less dangerous diseases, or simply do not attach importance to them. But the lack of examination and treatment may lead to a critical situation – the spinal fracture. If this occurs, the characteristic symptoms such as acute pain in the damaged region (cervical, ribs, sternum), strengthening of pain during palpation, excessive tension of the spinal muscles.
If a person has multiple hairline fractures of the spine, he feels aching pain, but not always pay attention to it. When such symptoms should immediately consult a doctor. The most common area of damage – the area between the fourth thoracic and the fourth lumbar vertebra.
Why is there a lesion of bone tissue
The structure of bone tissue contains special cells called osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The first is responsible for the destruction of bone tissue, to upgrade, to rejuvenate. The second are the builders of new bone tissue. The progression of osteoporosis due to the increased development of the cells of the first group and inhibition of the formation of the second. Osteoporosis can be due to low bone metabolism, and in the lack of estrogen in women residing in a state of menopause.
The main causes of disease:
- spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis;
- chronic anemia;
- dysfunction of the adrenal glands, thyroid gland;
- diseases of the liver, stomach, intestine, poor absorption of calcium.
A high-risk group are women over 50 years old, the elderly, cancer patients. Osteoporosis is sometimes manifested not as a pathology but as a consequence of serious systemic disorders in the body. Therefore, you should be very attentive to the signs of the destruction of the musculoskeletal system and is regularly surveyed.
The disease can cause:
- hereditary factors;
- early menopause;
- long reception of preparations of group of corticosteroids;
- taking hormones in the pathology of the thyroid gland;
- the lack of body weight;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- addicted to coffee, Smoking.
In order to avoid disease development it is necessary to observe preventive measures. These include proper nutrition with osteoporosis of the spine, diet, replenishing the body with calcium, exercises for the cervical spine, therapeutic exercise for the lumbar of the sacrum. It is advisable to abstain from alcohol, Smoking, purchase a pillowtop mattress.
Treatment of osteoporosis of the spine depends on the reasons that caused it. If the patient’s condition arose from the thyroid gland, calcitonin is assigned. When postclimacteric the nature of the disease prescribe estradiol, estriol. Shows the consumption of calcium, preparations containing it, carbonate or nitrate of calcium, vitamin complexes. The main aim of therapeutic measures is to maintain normal concentration of calcium to prevent fractures of the spine, to reduce pain. To improve calcium absorption calcitriol is useful, slowing resorption is achieved by ingestion of alendronate, biophosphonates, osteopina, of miacalcic. Occasionally prescribe a fluoride type aspen.
If the disease is caused by long-term administration of corticosteroids, the patient is administered methandienone, silabolin, metabolin. Pain, inflammation contributes to the taking Movalis, ksidifon, external application of ointments with bischofite. Patients also a special diet is prescribed.
Along with drug treatments it is advisable to use physiotherapy. They can be in the use of laser, ultrasound, magnet therapy. Useful electrophoresis, shortwave diathermy, ultraphonophoresis the introduction of the necessary hormones, barotherapy.