Osteoporosis — prevention, causes and treatments
How to identify and cure osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a systemic progressive disease as a result of which, the skeleton is affected person, changing bone structure and decreases the density of the fabric. The disease is characterized by the violation of the complex bone architecture, bone when it becomes friable and prone to fractures.
Classification of the disease
The osteoporosis prevalence is systemic and local. In its etiology is divided into primary, interrelated with natural processes occurring in the organism, and secondary, occurs as a consequence of certain diseases.
Primary osteoporosis there are 3 types:
- idiopathic (appears in people of middle age).
Secondary, can appear with the disease:
- Digestive tract;
- Rheumatic illnesses (spondylitis, SLE, rheumatoid arthritis);
- Of the endocrine system.
According to the criteria of morphological character distinguishes the following types of osteoporosis:
- Trabecular – loss of cancellous;
- Cortical loss of cortical substance.
The nature course of the disease is divided into even and spotty osteoporosis. The metabolic intensity of tissues in the bones can be: normal, low and high
The causes of disease and risk factors
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In the development of the disease great importance to have violations, re-modulate and balance of bone tissue.
With age, bone density becomes less as it reduces their strength.
These age-related changes are considered normal, but for some they happen ahead of time and occur with high intensity.
There are many risk factors for the occurrence of this disease, the awareness of which will help prevent the disease or slow down its flow.
The factors resulting from prolonged use of the following medications:
- Antagonists and agonists;
- Of phosphate binding antacids;
- Antibiotics of the tetracycline series;
- Cyclosporine A, methotrexate;
- Cytostatics and cytotoxins (antineoplastic agents);
- Phenytoin (anticonvulsant drug);
- Thyroid hormones;
Factors due to concomitant pathological condition:
- Chronic liver failure;
- Chronic insufficiency of blood circulation;
- Violation of the absorption of the digestive system;
- System autoallergy (lupus, arthritis, polymyositis, etc.);
- Diseases of the blood and organs, its creative (pernicious anemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia);
- The endocrine system (hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and more. etc.).
The pressures caused by maintaining poor lifestyle:
- Abuse of coffee and alcohol;
- Excessive exercise;
- The lack of content in the body of calcium (deficiency, with food, or malabsorption of his body);
- The lack of this element D;
- A sedentary lifestyle.
- Infertility all kinds;
- Periods of amenorrhea;
- Later the monarch;
- Early menopause;
- Hormonal imbalance of any kind.
- Intolerance of milk products of origin;
- The long neck of the femur relative to the shaft;
- Subjectively fragile;
- Low bone mass;
- Growth (more than 172 cm for women and 183 cm for men);
- Low body weight;
- Gender (women’s risk increases 3 times more than men);
- Age (old age);
- Osteoporosis and pathological fractures of the vertebrae and femurs from relatives;
- Race (Mongoloid, Caucasoid).
Many factors can be avoided or to influence them (except genetic). You need to carry out prevention, which includes a lot of activities.
Preventive measures to prevent disease
To prevent diseases, particularly people related to it, genetic predisposition, should adhere to the following guidelines:
- To lead a healthy lifestyle;
- To eat right;
- Exercise (moderately).
What is the essence of a healthy lifestyle?
To maintain your health you need to since childhood – at a time when the dice trying to accumulate as many minerals. Bad habits — alcohol, Smoking, coffee in large quantities, reduce fixation (the process of formation of new tissue cells), and disrupt the absorption of calcium.
As a result of Smoking is a long spasserovannye capillaries – this prevents the flow of minerals in bones (especially the spine). Coffee – removes calcium from the bones, which is subsequently excreted by the kidneys. Why healthy lifestyle is important in preventing osteoporosis.
How important is proper nutrition?
Prevention of disease with a diet based primarily on the use of calcium. If the period of active growth it is not enough enters the body, many years later, it may have a negative impact on bone health. In addition to calcium it is important the consumption of foods rich in phosphorus and magnesium (minerals) that are important for bone formation and vitamin D. to Satisfy the body, these elements may be the products that contain them in abundance, they are:
- Dairy products (especially cheeses);
- Egg yolk;
- Sprouts (especially soy);
- Fresh herbs;
- Marine fish;
- The liver.
Prevent absorption of minerals, can also diet based on reduced fat content.
Hard to leech calcium from the bones salt, if enters the body in excess. Therefore, its consumption must be monitored.
Why the need for exercise?
With the help of physical activity maintained bone density. Physical activity is particularly useful for the prevention of the disease after its development it can become useless. Regular classes make up for the loss of bone mass by 2% at a time when as a result of prolonged bed rest, the bones lose their volume by 15%.
Physical activity should be moderate. They are not only in sports training but also in dance, fitness and aerobics. Well perform strength exercises using simulators. «Main» in the prevention of regular exercise, otherwise the desired result may not be.
As the disease manifests itself?
Osteoporosis in the process of its development is characterized by slow lose bone mass and deformation of the vertebrae. For a long time, the disease may be asymptomatic. The appearance of a sharp intense pain associated with the compression of the vertebrae causing limited range of motion that causes a painful punishment, sometimes leading to depression.
The disease is characterized by fractures of the ribs, with pain in the sternum, which are explained by micro fractures. If you destroyed the head of the thigh-bone, patients there is a «duck» gait. In this disease, «possible» decrease in human growth 2-3 cm, long course of 10-15 cm
Diagnostic steps to identify disease
The most common method of diagnosis is radiography. With the help of the indicators. the disease can be detected when bone mass is lost by 20-30%. For early diagnosis of osteoporosis is used as a method of bone dissimmetrii is safe and the best kind of research as a result of which the condition of the bone is determined with precision. Conduct and radioisotope scanning, which can detect osteoporosis and to determine the localization of the lesion.
During the examination, you must pass tests:
- The thyroid hormones;
- Blood and urine (total);
- Monitoring of protein, phosphate, calcium and bilirubin in blood plasma.
The purpose and methods of treatment of the disease
The goal of treatment of osteoporosis of the spine is the suspension of the destructive process of the bone tissue, and restoring normal functioning of joints and bones. It does this by assigning a balanced diet, drug therapy, physiotherapy, exercise therapy.
The patient must be in the process of treatment to lead a healthy lifestyle (stop Smoking, drinking alcohol, coffee).
In this disease you need to eat foods containing large amounts of calcium, these include:
- Dairy products (milk, cheese);
- Vegetables of dark green color;
- Cabbage etc.
Insufficient intake of calcium with food, fill up with drugs.
Also required is the use of vitamin D, which is contained in:
- Dairy products (cheese, sour cream);
- Chicken eggs;
You need to give preference to products that contain zinc, vitamin B6, folic acid and magnesium, which are part of the following products:
- Cereal and legume crops;
- Offal (liver);
- Leafy vegetables (salads);
Together with these products, we recommend drinking fresh juices pressed from carrots, apples, cucumbers, tomatoes, beets, spinach.
An exemplary power supply circuit:
- Breakfast. Oatmeal 110 g Milk 120 ml dried Apricots, 5 fruits. Grind walnuts 1ch./L. Fresh orange juice – 120 ml.
- Lunch. Low-fat cottage cheese 60 g. Grapes 30 g. Sesame seeds 1 C/L. Four 250 g tomato and lettuce.
- Dinner. Chicken with spaghetti. In the pasta you want to add 30 g grated cheese 100 g of spinach.
Diet in this disease is an important step in the treatment. From the right mix of products, is crucial for strengthening the bone tissues and the organism as a whole.
Physical education must be included in the daily plan for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Patients with osteoporosis are shown physical activity the following types:
- Yoga and stretching for flexibility;
- Water gymnastics and swimming – a positive effect on all the muscles;
- Classes on the bar and strength training help to strengthen the back;
- Aerobics strengthens the muscles of the legs;
- Walking, dancing, climbing stairs.
Ideal physical activity will be the inclusion of exercises from all 4 of the above groups. As orientation for those wishing to train, you can imagine the following exercises:
- Stand on all fours, slowly arch your back and then return to its original position. To be done 7 times;
- To lie on the side, free hand draw on the floor, raise the straight leg and hold it for 5 seconds, lower. Repeat 9 times on each leg;
- Lie on your back and legs to imitate riding a bike. To do 2 min;
- In the supine position, clasp your knees with your hands and tighten the abdomen, count to 5, then release. Repeat 7 times;
- To sit down, lower hands down, to make the 20 circular rotations of the shoulders together, then separately each shoulder many times;
- Sit in a comfortable position and bend your elbows, slowly retract the shoulders, reducing the blade count to 5, then relax. To be done 9 times.
Exercise should start with minimum loads, which gradually should be increased. During the lessons it is impossible to prevent sudden movements and heavy loads. In physiotherapy you do not need to include jumping, turning the waist, squat, sharp bends, running. It is forbidden to lift the dumbbells, kettlebells, barbells.
Treatment of disease with medicines
Before to treat osteoporosis medications, consult your doctor!
For the treatment of osteoporosis today there are a lot of drugs. The most commonly used and effective the following:
Calcium «Lactate». Well-tolerated form of the drug with high activity against calcium chloride and gluconate. Take 2-3/day 1 tab.
The sodium fluoride. Salt composed of fluorine and sodium. Enhances the synthesis of bone tissue and prevents its destruction. Is assigned to 1-2 tablets./1-4 p./day.
«Gluconate» calcium. Compensates deficiency of mineral. Available in the form of tablets, powder and solution for injection. Adults appoint 1 to 3 g/day 2-3 reception. Children the dose is prescribed based on the age and body weight.
Calcium «Chloride». Compensates the deficiency of mineral. Available in the form of a solution for internal ingestion and injection. Adults 1 tbsp ingest 2-3/day. Children 1 h./l. Drip 10 ml/10% RA-RA diluted in saline 100 ml.
- The methandrostenolone.
Increase protein synthesis and intestinal absorption of amino acids. Slow down the destruction of urine phosphorus. Contribute to the deposition of calcium in bone tissue. The application shown is strictly after consultation with a doctor who’ll prescribe doses.
- Ethinyl estradiol;
Prevent leaching from the body of phosphorus and calcium. Taken on doctor’s orders.
- Ibandronate Sodium;
- Etidronate Sodium;
- Clodronate Sodium;
- Pamidronate Sodium;
- Alendronate Sodium.
These drugs it is prescribed for treatment of osteoporosis in women at menopause, prolonged exposure to obezbijede position, and also when concomitant neoplastic diseases and pathologies of the adrenal glands. Take strictly as directed by your doctor.
Calcitriol. The drug is synthesized by artificial means in laboratories. Drug shows mainly women patients with osteoporosis during menopause. Make 1-2 $ /day 0, 25 mg. Available in capsule form.
To assign how and what drugs to treat the disease needs a doctor, the treatment is carried out under his supervision.
A timely trip to the doctor, maintaining a healthy lifestyle and a proper balanced diet and perform all requirements of technician will quickly and effectively cure the disease.