Over-and under-pronation and supination of the foot: what is it

What diseases can cause disturbed pronation of the foot

The design of the human foot the unique and complex nature tried and made it ideal for moving in space.

One of the main participants of the motor is stop, it’s kind of a spring unit that is responsible for support, stability and balance of the human body.

Not everyone knows how great the role of foot health. Problems with back, knees, neck are often mistaken for symptoms of other diseases that stop in this list of precipitating factors appear rare.

Meanwhile, the source of many ills and diseases in it, or rather in the wrong use of the foot.

Functions of a healthy foot

Stop when the movement is experiencing a huge load. It should be easy to turn and to be movable, it affects the muscles, and also speed and endurance while moving.

In addition, healthy foot provides:

  • safe movement on variety of surfaces;
  • the ability to move the body (sideways, forward, backward) and monitoring movements;
  • the distribution of body load.

The increase in the number of foot disease in the last decade have resulted in the emergence of biomechanics. Problems seen almost half the world’s population, it was the occasion of serious research and study of disorders associated with biomechanically processes.

To understand their essence and details optional. The ordinary person far from sports records, knowing enough about the two processes that occur in our legs during movement is pronation and supination of the foot.

Pronation of the foot: what is it?

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Immediately silenced, pronation is not a disease but simply a term that defines the movement of the foot, or rather, her ability to turn outside or inside.

Pronation is essential, without it the person is not able to move, it makes the foot more mobile.

The movement of pronation provides two main functions:

  • spring (smoothing impact when the foot with the supporting surface);
  • balancing (adaptation to the irregularities of the surface in contact c support).
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Foot contact with the surface, its vault is flexible and flat, the shock load is reduced. This process resembles the action of the automobile springs.

In addition to the arch of the foot, the work included the Shin. She moves inside, turns the foot and increases shock absorption. In normal pronation, the load is distributed evenly, disorders of the body reacts instantly.

He begins to protect the damaged area, which leads to deformation of bones and layering of fabrics. Almost all the problems of biomechanics occur due to violations of pronation, it is 98 %. The rest have to spencey.

The importance of supination

As soon as movement of the center of gravity will mix forward, due to enter yet another phase of step cycle — this is supination.

Are involved in the process the leg and foot muscles, increasing their elasticity and accumulating energy.

If the movements of pronation are responsible for the correct formulation of the foot and reducing shock loads during contact of the foot with a support, supination allotted a different role to contribute to the push phase.

Violations supination provoke a rare disease of the foot, in most cases they are associated with neuromuscular system. Defects limit the mobility and flexibility of the foot.

Understanding these basic concepts and their significance to minimize the risk of injury and promotes a more rational use of forces during the movement.

About the types of violations pronation

There is such a thing as stepping cycle. This is a complex of events that begins with the movements in the foot and ends in the thumb area.

In the patient’s foot load is distributed unevenly, it causes inflammation: corn, pain, discomfort. The tendons and muscles begin to contract wrong, in the end become inflamed joints.

Pronation redistributes body weight and reduces the load, it is its main role and merit.

Pronation of the foot happens:

  1. Neutral. The weight of the body evenly distributes the load across the toes with a slight emphasis on the second and big toes.
  2. Redundant. The weight is distributed unevenly, the load is placed on the large and second toe, and the rest indifferent. Stabilization is broken, there is an imbalance of balance, and as a result, the eversion of the foot outwards.
  3. Insufficient. In equilibrium the weight of the thumb is not involved, the main attack takes the outside part of the foot, the little finger and the fourth finger.
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Healthy foot — inseparable harmonious mechanism, the deviation is 4° from the neutral position is considered to be a violation of pronation. The consequences and complications in such cases is inevitable.

So, when there is insufficient pronation impact attenuation is reduced, it can cause muscle sprains of lower leg and pain in the knee joints.

Excessive, on the contrary, leads to unnatural flat foot contact and support. The arch of the foot is displaced inwards, the toes turn outwards, the ligaments of the foot stretch. Muscle is a highly undesirable phenomenon, they lose the ability to function effectively.

Of deformity — causes and origins

The health of the foot depends on many factors.

The causes that provoke violations and pathology stop:

  • irrational shoes;
  • excess body weight;
  • excessive strain during heavy work or sports;
  • congenital abnormalities of bone structures;
  • weakness and age-related changes in bone and muscle apparatus;
  • the dysfunction of nerve and muscle (innervation).

What disease causes a violation of the pronation

Foot defects threaten the health of the whole organism. Because of the lack of depreciation when driving the spine suffers, the joints of the feet, the brain.

Failure of any part of the biomechanics of the foot leads to excessive load. The body has to redevelop, adapt and protect themselves from uncomfortable States.

May develop flat feet, curvature of the thumb, clubfoot. It is not excluded the formation of irregular gait and violations of amortization of internal organs.

Abnormal pronation can cause incorrect weight transfer and rapid wear of the joints of the lower extremities. The list of complications and problems with feet are caused by abnormal Michaud, is very high.

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For those already listed, you can add:

  • pain in the heels, knees and the arch of the foot;
  • hallux valgus;
  • arthrosis, osteoarthrosis;
  • metatarsalgia;
  • violation of the Achilles tendon;
  • corn on the surface of the sole of the foot.

The insidiousness of Podiatry in their stealth and bessimptomnom. Diseases can for a long time to manifest itself. The aggravation often cause an increase in physical activity and active sports.

When the foot care and correct, timely treatment of any complications you can avoid, stop or slow down.

How to prevent violations?

All known violations of pronation of a person’s life is not threatened, but to leave them unattended. Previously, it was difficult to determine exactly where the weight is distributed abnormally.

Computer methods modern technology has solved many problems, in particular related to the cause and nature of the appearance of foot deformities.

This has affected the quality of diagnosis and treatment, allowed to find a loyal and successful methods of normalization pronation without surgery. To prevent the development of a process to help the swimming and massage, special shoes, and physiotherapy.

Do the conclusions!

Long-term treatment of abnormal pronation is not required, but remedial measures case better not to bring. Correction needs to take control, you will need the help of a good specialist.

Watch your weight and health, and realistically assess their strengths and do not overdo it, at the first suspicion of danger signs go to the doctor.