Pain in the knee joint: causes and treatment
One of the busiest organs of the body is the knee joint. It consists of many interrelated elements, which are constantly under high mechanical loads. It is not surprising that pain in the knee joint is familiar to most people.
In all movements (especially when walking or Jogging) physical activity perceived knee joint. Pain in the knee joint is not exclusive to athletes. In the age of the person feels weak protection of this body when walking suddenly having discomfort or pain in the knee joint. It is important to know their causes and take measures of treatment.
Anatomy of the knee
The knee joint is one of the largest and complex organs of the human body. His frame is the basis of three bones: the upper thigh, lower tibia bone and the patella the Central (Cup). In the places of articulation of the two main bones have a pair of extended protrusions called condyles.
Patella is located in the recess between the outer and inner ridges of the femur. In the contact area between the surface of all the bones of the knee coats the cartilage surface.
Between the main bones are cartilaginous horseshoe-shaped plate, called the meniscus. In the knee joint has two meniscus — external and internal, which redistribute the load by increasing and equalizing the contact area, and also function as shock absorbers.
The outer layer of the knee joint is a capsule that has synovial fluid. This fluid lubricates and nourishes the cartilage plate, providing a kind of lubricant.
Stabilize and move the bones relative to each other is performed by means of ligaments (muscles). Main ligaments: anterior and posterior — cruciate; inner and outer side. The tendons surrounding the kneecap and provide the extension (flexion) of the lower leg. Tendons are an integral part of the quadriceps muscle. Under the kneecap is a ligament that attaches it to the tibia bone.
To facilitate the functioning of muscles in the knee joint is provided synovial Bursa (Bursa). In total, the joint six bags supplying different muscles and tendon.
Pain in the knee: causes, associated with blood circulation
Pain in the knee joint can be caused by disorders in the human circulatory system. Such pain often not associated with disease and are caused by the deterioration of blood flow in the joint. They can occur in people of any age group. This phenomenon is often observed in adolescents and is associated with delayed development of the vascular system. Upon reaching the age of twenty, these pains go away on their own.
The main symptom of occurrence of pain due to blood circulation is symmetric (the same) its manifestation in both knees with a sharp climatic changes during colds and after physical overload. Special treatment for pain of this type is not required. Joint pain usually disappears when using warming compositions (ointments). Effectively shows self massage and self-massage of the knee joint. In severe pain, we recommend taking drugs that expand blood vessels.
Often there are pains in the knee, the causes of which lie in the traumatic exposure. A knee injury is a common type of injury that do not lead to destruction of elements of the joint. It causes local hemorrhage into the tissues of the joint, swelling and sometimes severe pain that fetter movement.
The consequence of this injury is a temporary disruption of blood circulation, deformation of blood vessels and nerve processes. These injuries are of a temporary nature, and the organs recover over time.
Sharp knee pain can be due to haemarthrosis, caused by severe injuries. Such injuries are subjected to destructive damage to ligaments, tissue, capsules. A significant amount of blood from damaged blood vessels causes swelling of the synovial membrane, leading to excess fluid.
Usually when hemarthrosis fluid mixed with blood, and when damage to bone tissue appears fatty component. To address the impacts, it is recommended to remove excessive fluid and blood from the joint cavity and flushing it.
Damage to the meniscus and ligaments
The traumatic effects sometimes leads to a sprain of ligaments in the gap that usually refers to the internal ligament. The main symptoms of torn ligaments: severe pain in the injured area, increasing when bending the lower leg, limited mobility in the knee joint, expression of hemarthrosis (edema). A complete tear of the ligament can cause a complete violation of the fixation of the foot in the joint. When severe damage occurs, the need for surgical intervention.
Damage and meniscal tear is a common injury that causes pain in the knee joint. The cause of the injury is usually a sharp turn of the hips while holding the foot or lower leg. Main symptoms: rapid hemarthrosis, inability to fully straighten the leg at the knee joint, dysfunction of motion, sharp pain. Measures to assist the victim must be taken immediately after the injury.
Small lesions of the meniscus require a long treatment, with complete rupture or flattening is surgery. This type of injury is very dangerous and to avoid consequences you need to consult a specialist.
Pain in the knee is sometimes caused by chronic relapses of the displacement of the patella. The reasons for this phenomenon lie in the education of deformity in childhood, which gradually progresses and becomes chronic. People with patellar dislocation feels the pain in the front and inner sides of the knee.
When driving may occur looseness in the joints. The degree of displacement of the patella is determined by radiography.
Tendonitis and other inflammation
Tendonitis is an inflammatory process in tendons. It is known that the causes can be as traumatic and harmful. The main causes of tendinitis include: long-term physical overload; injury; infectious diseases; diseases such as rheumatism; the reaction to the allergen, the deviation from the normal structure of the limbs; atrophy of tendons or underdevelopment; abnormal posture. The most characteristic symptoms are: throbbing pain and limitation of motion of the joint. The pain may occur suddenly and be strengthened with time. When surge occurs inflamed tendon pain.
When inflammation of the Bursa bursitis develops. Symptoms:
- pain in the region of the patella;
- the restriction in movement of joints.
If the disease is run, it develops into a chronic form, and may lead to surgical intervention.
Inflammation of the synovial membrane triggers the appearance of disease — synovitis. The disease can be caused by traumatic effects or infections.
The inflammation causes changes in the composition of synovial fluid that leads to the accumulation of pus, gradually increasing knee pain, swelling. Synovitis symptoms: aching pain tolerant, a sharp increase in the leg at the knee joint.
Pain in osteoarthritis and arthritis
Arthrosis (gonarthrosis) is a common cause of pain in the knee joint, especially for people older than 40 years. Osteoarthritis can be diagnosed if joint pains on both legs or on only one. The development of the disease is rather slow. The first symptoms are manifested only after a long walk. Gradually, the disease progresses and becomes evident even at a small walking, especially when moving up the stairs. At rest the pain is almost not felt. In more severe stages of the disease can lead to the fact that in any walk appears the crunch in the joint, manifested considerable deformation.
Arthritis, i.e. inflammation in the joints can cause pain in the knee joint in people of almost any age. The inflammation occurs most often in diseases of the rheumatic and reactive type.
The main symptoms of this disease: pain in joint, limitation of movement, fever with advanced forms of the disease, General swelling of the knee joint. The process of arthritic inflammation develops quite quickly with the manifestation of edema. Severe pain in the knee area particularly at night, and night pain is not caused by the movement of the limb.
Why hurt the knee: impact of osteoarthritis
Ache in osteoarthritis of the knee joint, due to the destruction of cartilage, leading to irregularities in the heads of the major bones. In the first stage of the disease the symptoms are pain when you start moving.
Then the disease increases and is manifested in the trend towards a clear reduction of joint mobility and severe pain. In severe stage it can cause a noticeable curvature of the legs. During prolonged sitting pain can manifest itself in the area of the spine.
Treatment of pain in the knee joint
In determining the method of treatment it is important to know why hurt the knee, i.e. to make a correct diagnosis. In addition to specific treatment methods, there are General rules. At occurrence of pain need to reduce the physical load to eliminate ailments. If there is sharp or throbbing pain, any physical activity should be deleted.
For almost any joint pain recommended soft or dense elastic bandage or brace. After clarification with a specialist it is advisable to use a warming compositions (Finalgon) and compresses. When severe pain is recommended to install an ice compress. To relieve pain and inflammation, you need to use painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs. Very useful massage the knee joint. To recover from illness, you should use a complex of therapeutic physical exercises. With long-term therapeutic treatment important diet.
Pain in the knee joint can be caused by many causes and result from both injuries and disease. The importance of timely diagnosis when it is still possible to do without surgical intervention.