Pathways of the spinal cord structure of the spinal cord
The spinal cord is one of the main parts of the Central nervous system. Its development starts almost from the first minute prenatal formation of the human body. One of the elements of protection of the spinal cord are the sheath of the spinal cord. It is located in the cavity of the spine. Due to the relative strongholds of the vertebrae, the spinal cord retains its integrity.
What is a spinal cord?
Cord the spinal cord is a pillar. He looks like an elongated cylinder with pointed ends. Surprisingly, such an important element of the human body weighs 40 g. the cord Starts at the base of the brain (at the beginning of the cervical spine), near the occipital hole. The boundary between the medulla and the spinal cord is close to the occipital hole. It ends approximately at the level of the first or second vertebrae of the lumbar spine. Approaching the end, he begins to narrow, forming a cone, from which descends down the thin filament of the spinal cord and terminal filament. In this thin thread are nerve fibers. The cone of the spinal cord is reminiscent of a large concentration of connective tissue that has three layers. Filum terminale of the spinal Department, which goes from the cone of the spinal cord ends just below the second lumbar vertebra. There it converges with the periosteum. In this area formed a pony tail, a cluster of nerve endings of the spinal cord, entangling the thread with connective tissue.
The spinal cord has several fields that cover it. The main sheath of the spinal cord:
The main channel is first covered with a soft layer, then comes the arachnoid layer of the meninges. Its branches are from the main channel using soft and hard protective layers of meninges of spinal cord and brain. The basic functions (power and protection) are performed by the membranes of the spinal cord and brain.
Sulcus and thickening
If viewed from the position of the spine, cervical and lumbar are moveable, and the thorax is fixed. This is due to the fact that the spine with the ribs protect the lungs, heart and other internal organs from damage. In departments having mobility, there is a high probability of damage.
For this reason the spinal cord in these departments there is condensation. This area of the cervical enlargement and the lumbar-sacral seals. Moreover, there are additional clusters of nerve endings. Their function — innervation of upper and lower extremities.
The spinal cord is divided in half by the cracks. This furrow. These grooves are symmetrical (front and back). Front and rear grooves of the spinal cord is the border. For example, in front of him is the spine of the movement, and these grooves are separated by front and third ropes. The striations are very important.
Substance, segments and roots
The spinal cord has front and back roots. It is also the nerve endings. Front roots depart from the gray matter of the CNS. Back roots — sensitive cells, penetrating into the nervous system, blending, front and rear end form the nodes.
A total of 62 of the spine. They branch out in different directions around the size of the spinal cord. Turns 31 the spine on each side. The segment is already part of the spinal cord, which is located between the pair of «forks»-roots. Accordingly, the number of spinal segments is equal to 31. For cervical have 8 segments, thoracic — 12, lumbar — 5 segments, the sacrum — 5 segments and the last on the coccyx. This partly converges with the number of vertebrae in the human body, but the spinal cord is shorter than the spine, so some segments do not correspond to their localization, when compared with the vertebra.
In the spinal nerve bundle not only includes the roots-shoots. He also has white and gray matter. The uniqueness lies in the fact that white matter is only of the nerve fibers of the spinal cord, but the grey matter is formed not only by the cells and fibers of the spinal cord and nerve endings of the brain.
White matter covers gray matter. Inside the gray matter is the main channel. In turn inside the main canal is the cerebrospinal fluid. If we consider a cross-section of the spinal cord, the white substance has the shape of a butterfly. Cross-section allows to study in detail the structure of the spinal cord in the transverse direction. Spinal cord (Central canal) and the brain (the ventricles, between the membranes) are not only nerve, but also the circular motion of the cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid is regulated by the nerve plexus located in the ventricles of the spinal cord. Regulation of cerebrospinal fluid (its production and backward induction) is the same way.
Cerebrospinal fluid analysis is often performed when the diagnosis of spinal cord and brain. The slicer won’t have to do. Through her study can identify the presence of tumor, infection, parasites, inflammatory processes.
Gray matter is the General name for columns of the spinal cord. They are held together in one place. This area is called the plate. This compound is grey. In the center is the main channel in which the spinal cord is located. Such areas of bonding pillars are two: front and back. They are located in the front and rear parts of the main channel. In the cross-section of the spinal cord such spikes resemble the shape of a butterfly or the letter H.
When considering the spinal cord is visible as from the gray matter moving away performances, which are referred to as horns of the spinal cord. They are located front and rear. Located front projections to the front horns. There is a wide front pair and rear pair are narrow horns. In the anterior horns are neurons movement. Themselves front roots formed from neurite outgrowth. This is the movement of neurons. In the front horn is the core of the spinal cord, and it is not one. Nuclei are formed from the neurons of horns. In total there should be five centers of nuclei: Central lateral (2) medial (2 PCs.) From these processes are sent to the muscles.
Narrow rear twin horns have a custom kernel. They are located in the center. Motor nucleus formed subsidiary of neuronal inserted. Axons — the roots of these nerve cells. They go to the front horn, forming bundles. They intersect with the front bond (spikes), and then transferred to the front side of the spinal cord. If intercalated nerve cells reach large size compared to other neurons, the dendrites (completion) is much branched, forming another nucleus. This core is located near the bases of the posterior horn. The spinal cord nodes, which are located between the vertebrae consist of cells-neurons that have significant spikes. They reach the centers of the rear horns.
Between the horns of anterior and posterior spinal cord is formed by the intermediate Department. In this area side branch (horns of the spinal cord) differ from gray matter. This phenomenon can be seen from the eighth cervical to the second lumbar segment of the spinal cord.
These branches have substance, which is composed exclusively of nerve cells. Their uniqueness lies in the fact that they are designed exclusively by the vegetative nervous system.
White matter in the brain
The spinal cords of the brain (three pairs: front, side and rear) create a white solid. The front cords are located between the lateral and medial slits. There are front processes. The lateral cords are located between the two lateral slits. Back cord can be seen between the lateral and median cracks.
Nerve impulses move along the nerve fibers. The fibers are formed due to white matter. The impulse goes in two directions: upward (to the brain) and down (spinal cord segments).
Gray matter also has nerve endings that are located between the segments. These short end connect only close to the neighbouring departments. The segmental apparatus of the spinal cord — that is, that they form together. Their goal — implementation of communication between departments of the spinal cord.
Neurons form ganglia posterior roots of the spinal cord. Some of them are connected with the rear horn, and the rest are on the sides. Another part of the endings passes to the rear cords. Then they are sent to the brain. This conductive path ascending the dorsal organ.
Conducting function of nerves
The spinal cord performs several very important functions, one of them is conductive. This means that the spinal cord and the impulses to move the information to the brain and other bodies (and Vice versa).
This function is performed through the white matter, neurons and nerve fibers of which it is composed. The evolutionary development of the spinal cord led to the fact that the reflex arc become increasingly complex as the basis of the nervous system. Development gave the opportunity to the fact that where earlier could be only one neuron, gradually began to appear on the nodes of nerve fibers, each of which consisted of clusters of nerve cells.
Pathways of the dorsal organ is a collection of nerve endings that have common functions and similar structure and development. These fibers bind either the brain and spinal cord, or different segments of the spinal cord.
All the way to the spinal cord, depending on the functions klassificeret as projection, associative and commissural. The projection path can be efferent and afferent. These ways are basic in the Central nervous system. They can be ascending and descending. Downward paths called motor and centrifugal. The ascending path are called sensitive and centripetal. The ascending fibers are currents that go from the receptors and are responsible for the internal and external factors of the environment.
The conductive path of the ascent share on the way Intero — exteroanterocone and proprioceptive sensitivity. There are several key bundles: path Gaulle and Burdach, lateral, dorsal, ventral. Thin and wedge-shaped beams react to touch, easy motion, as of a body in space. Dorsolateral path and thalamic way responsible for temperature control and pain. Bundles Gowers and Flexile aimed at skin receptors and receptors of muscles, ligaments. In addition, they are responsible for the transmission of impulses in the perception of pressure.
The descending fiber conducts electrical currents from the brain to the spinal cord, rather, they are transferred to the nuclei motion, then follows the reaction.
Operations on the spinal cord
Mostly brain surgery and spine are open, only in some very rare cases it is possible to hold closed intervention.
The most common surgical intervention when it is necessary to open the posterior surface of the spinal cord (this is the laminectomy).
Also often need laminotomy is the operation under which it is possible to expose the spine is not a small period and over a large area.
If necessary fixation of the vertebrae, the use of different plates and designs, but you need to do cut in the wrong place.
Operations on the peripheral nervous system using conventional principles. Is cut, using a special microscope, which allows you to stitch nerves, if they were torn or broken.
Now it is possible to use prostheses for some, not the most significant segments of the spinal cord.
Operation under General anesthesia. In some cases, local anesthesia is used. Depending on the operation can be used in gaseous anesthesia, inhalation, anesthesia and electric stuff.
Recovery after surgery may take a different period, depending on severity. Can occur following postoperative related issues:
- itching and burning in the incision area for the surgery;
- headaches and dizziness;
- disturbances in speech, swallowing, seizures, seizures, seizures.
You need to consult a doctor for solving the problems. Listed below are the main diseases of the spinal cord.
Symptoms and effects of atrophy
Atrophy of the spinal cord is the process by which nerve fibers and cells die off and destroyed neural connections. This phenomenon may go from the spinal cord to the brain.
Statistics show that brain atrophy occurs most often in women after 50 years. For several decades people can go to dementia. But the disease can take hold and very young children. The basis of disease is that the mass of the brain decreases over time. Scientists believe that the cause is heredity.
The symptoms depend on which spinal division will be affected. Man first ceases to be active, becomes sluggish. Sometimes it might be ignoring moral standards. Then you may experience problems with memory, speech, senses, motor skills, eventually lose the ability to analyze and create their own opinion.
Despite developed new methods of treatment, prognoses for patients not favorable. The best solution for the treatment will be communication and a good relationship in the family. Of drugs prescribed vitamins and medication for vessels.
You should try to maintain an active lifestyle, a healthy and proper diet.
Signs of meningioma
Meningioma of the brain is a tumor that is located on the canal of the spine. It usually occurs from vascular tissue layers of the brain. It is often located at the base of the skull. Often it is almost not growing for a long period. Meningioma of the spinal cord is small in size and takes no more than a few vertebrae. But then it could increase in length along the spine. In most cases, a meningioma is benign, but it so happens that it may become malignant or atypical.
It is established that the tumor can start to develop from ionizing radiation during pregnancy and increase during the menstrual cycle.
For treatment you can use radiation treatments or surgery. Chemotherapy will not give a positive result if the tumor is benign. The method of treatment depends on the location and size of the tumor. Often in the beginning used traditional methods to reduce the swelling in the area of the tumor.
Signs of angioma
Angioma of the spinal cord is a strong local vasodilation. From the side it looks like a red ball of tangled thread. This anomaly could occur because of heredity. Angioma may develop at birth and in old age. The reason for its sudden appearance can be trauma and infection.
Angioma manifested by symptoms such as:
- headaches and dizziness;
- eyesight, memory, coordination of movement;
- noises in the head;
Angioma is divided into the following types: venous, capillary, tricky (different tangle of blood vessels with thin walls).
If angioma of the small size and not interfere, it can not be removed. Otherwise the vessels are specially clogged and removed, so their development will not be observed.
Signs and consequences of rupture of the spinal cord
The brain break is very hard to diagnose. The rupture site is determined by the fact that the spinal cord is protected not only the spine but also the muscular base. The occurrence of such irregularities in the functioning of the nervous system, as the severing of the spinal cord can lead to very unpleasant, severe and unpredictable consequences for humans.
The gap leads to loss of sensitivity, activity and partial or complete paralysis. The gap can lead to total or partial disability, impairing a person’s life. Rupture can result in a car accident, personal injury, and fall from a great height. A person may experience spinal shock when refuses to work the entire body. This often leads to death.
The spinal cord is an important element of the human body. It is better to carry out prevention of any diseases, and fears to go to the doctor.