Physical therapy compression fracture of the spine

Physical therapy, physical therapy and massage in compression fracture of the spine three main components of the system of rehabilitation of victims. Thanks to they manage to resolve the results of prolonged immobility, maintain muscle tone and maintain flexibility of the spine.Лфк при компрессионном переломе позвоночника

What is the feature of compression fractures of the spine

Compression fracture of the spine occur not from a blow to the vertebral column and compression. In such cases, the vertebra is not so much broken, how much deformed. Its front plate is broken, causing the vertebra is squashed, it becomes wedge-shaped, above which a vertebra is displaced forward and down.

Compression fracture is more common to the lumbar or lower spine, depending on the nature of the injury. If the force of the blow fell on the feet or buttocks (for example, when landing after a jump), it suffers from the lumbar spine, and if the head or neck (as in diving head downwards), the lower chest region. With significant deformations of the rear part of the vertebra is pressed into the spinal canal, squeezing or even damaging the spinal cord.

Often, if the deformation is small, the vertebra continues to perform its functions, and the person may not even be aware of the injury, especially if he already has other problems with the spine.

Periods of physiotherapy in compression fracture

If the deformation of the spine does not exceed one third of its height, these injuries can be treated with conservative methods. Such treatment is of great importance orthopedic activities. They are aimed at giving the patient the best position.

The patient should be laid on the bed, definitely hard. Itself the bed should be sloped so that the head of the person lying was 0.4–0.6 m above the level of the feet. The patient admitted under the arms special straps attached to the headboard of the bed and for discharging tension in the spine, under the neck or lower back enclose cotton-gauze rolls. This body position allows you to unload the axis of the spine and helps to stretch the anterior longitudinal ligament. All this helps to stretch the vertebrae in the spinal column, thus reducing the pressure.

Compression injuries of the spine physical therapy consists of 4 periods. Each of these periods has certain tasks.Лфк при компрессионном переломе позвоночника


The purpose for doing it

The 1st period lasts for the first week and a half after the injury. The main goal of physical therapy during this period is to improve the well-being of the injured and preserving the maximum efficiency of his muscles.
The 2nd period occurs about a month after the injury. The main goal of physical therapy is getting the stimulation of blood circulation in the injured place, what allows to speed up the process of regeneration, the production of so-called muscular corset and preparing the spine to a more intensive mode of travel. Usually in the middle of the second period the patient is allowed to lie on the stomach, which allows you to add in physical therapy exercises from this initial position.
3rd period further recovery of mobility. The goal of physical therapy is to further recovery of mobility of the vertebrae. In this time increases the intensity and duration of physical therapy sessions. In the gymnastics complex start to introduce exercises with weights, as well as some elements of the exercises with strengthening to further strengthen his muscles.
4th period since the resumption of independent movement of the patient to actually complete his recovery. The complex of gymnastic exercises aimed at restoring full mobility of the spine, fixing broken because of injury of movement skills and correct posture.

During class there is a smooth transition to full axial loading of the injured spine.

Features gymnastics at the initial stage

The basis of therapy in the initial period consists of different breathing exercises, as well as General developmental gymnastics small and medium-sized muscle groups and joints. Independently to actively move my legs at this time is possible only in Lite version, without lifting the foot from the bed. And be sure one by one, because even with a simple raising of the straight leg long back muscles experience tension, means for injured pain. Raising simultaneously both lines of the legs is strictly forbidden, as this movement several times increases the load on the front parts of the vertebrae affected by compression.

Physical therapy is carried out in this period individually exclusively and necessarily under the direct supervision of a physician. One lesson lasts 10 to 15 min. Exercises are chosen such that they can be performed lying on the back.

The main emphasis in the 1st period is done in sequential sliding movements of the feet at the bed plane. Also shows a kind of «bridge». During its execution, the patient, relying on the blades and the foot lifts for a few seconds the pelvis.

The first period is completed when the patient can lift up at an angle of 45 degrees straight leg without feeling pain in the injured place.

A set of exercises in the second recovery period

Лфк при компрессионном переломе позвоночникаAt this stage there is a gradual increase in the total load on the body. To do this, the duration of sessions gradually increased from 10-15 to 20-25 minutes gradually complicate the work and increase the number of repetitions.

Foundation physical therapy at this time are static and dynamic exercises for the hands and strengthening exercises for the back muscles and abdominals. To create a comfortable environment for recovery of damaged vertebrae, the emphasis is on performing a variety of exercises for bending the spine in the thoracic and lumbar. Performing such exercises helps an inclined bed position, as it is able to transfer a significant part of gravity elevated body left lying in bed the other parts of the body for which the bed surface serves as a stop.

Together with exercises for bending the spine in this period and practicing exercises to strengthen back muscles and abdominals. To allow active movement detached from the plane of the bed legs. But they should always be with a variable alternating feet.

When the patient is able to raise both legs at an angle of 45 degrees, without motion pain, you go to the third period of physical therapy.

Therapeutic gymnastics in the third period

In 3rd period there is a preparation of the injured spine to a gradual shift in the axial load. At this time, to old exercises, you can add exercises from the original provisions on all fours and on her knees. The first position allows you to bend the cervical and lumbar spine, reducing its overall load.

The second is designed for the gradual adaptation of the body to the vertical position. When performing exercises from this position, the torso needs a little rejected back to the center of gravity had on the area not the front and rear parts of the vertebrae. At the initial stage of the work from this initial position is necessary to adhere to hands on the headboard.

Both these premises provide the opportunity to perform exercises to strengthen the back muscles and the entire torso as well as exercises on coordination of movements. Basically it is light the trunk bending forward, backward and sideways, which by the middle of the 3rd period are replaced by a small movement on all fours, and at the final stage – and on his knees.

In this period it is already possible to perform exercises with the simultaneous separation of both legs from the bed plane. Although raise the straight leg up at a 90 degree angle to the body lying still is not recommended. From the supine position gymnastics you can do on a horizontally lowered the bed.

For exercise from the starting position lying on your stomach carry out the correction of the body by placing a chest gauze-cotton cushion (the so-called hyperextension posture).

The final period of physical therapy

Лфк при компрессионном переломе позвоночникаIt begins when the patient can independently get on his feet. At the initial stage these exercises the patient needs to learn to stand up. This should be done from the «belly» because of the sitting position for the patient still remains under the ban. From this position you need to move to the edge of the bed, lean on the floor with one leg, then using the power of the hands, straighten the torso and lower of bed with the other leg.

In this period gradually introduced to physical therapy exercises performed from a standing position. First is simple exercises: light tilts backwards, slow rolls the foot from toe to heel and back, alternating lead legs out to the sides. As for spine strengthening and rehabilitation of motor skills to the complex variety of more challenging exercises: polupriznanie with a straight spine, active movements of the ankle joint, as well as the gymnastic wall or with various gymnastic items.

Later the patient allowed walking, gradually increasing their duration. When a patient, after 1.5–2 hours this walk does not feel even the slightest discomfort to the injured portion of the spine, he is allowed to take a sitting position.

Compression fracture of the spine – the injury is very serious, and its treatment should be approached responsibly. A set of exercises for each period of treatment should exclusively choose a doctor based on the severity of the injury and the General physical condition of the patient. Also, always remember that treatment does not end with discharge from the hospital.

Regeneration of the damaged spinal column lasts for at least 10-12 months, and that time must strictly observe the prescriptions of the attending physician. Only in this case, perhaps a full recovery from the broken vertebrae.

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