Reactive arthritis: causes, symptoms, treatment, consequences
Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of reactive arthritis
Reactive arthritis is called the inflammation which includes not one, but several joints.
Typically, the arthritis develops independently, but often the disease occurs as a complication of a completely different pathology.
How to recognize arthritis at the initial stage of its development and what treatments are most effective?
The features and causes of
After the negative impact on the body of a provoking factor reactive arthritis begins to manifest itself almost immediately. Thus inflammation develops in the tissues and shells around which a huge number of vessels.
The disease can be primary or secondary. And in fact, and in another case, the pathology is not accompanied by dangerous consequences, and this means that the full restoration of mobility of the affected joint is possible. But this can only be achieved with timely beginning of treatment. Otherwise, the possibility of full recovery is greatly reduced.
If the arthritis is caused by infectious pathogen, inflammation develops directly in the joint cavity. This type of disease is divided into the following subtypes:
- specific that can be caused by gonorrhea, tuberculosis, dysentery, brucellosis and other infectious diseases;
- nonspecific is allergic in nature of origin;
- PTSD develops as a result of injury to the joint;
- crystalline (gout) caused by the metabolic process in the body that is accompanied by the deposition of salts in the joint.
Another kind of reactive arthritis is psoriatic, the development of which is characterized by pronounced symptoms: a characteristic skin rash, the possible appearance of dysentery, sore throat, hepatitis, syphilis and other pathologies.
The main cause of the disease – weakened immune system that creates the perfect conditions for the ingestion of pathogens.
The immune system begins to fight against its own joints and soft tissues.
Reactive arthritis develops as a result of the following reasons:
- penetration into the organism of pathogenic microorganisms;
- systematic stress, chronic lack of sleep, constant feeling of anxiety and depression;
- failure to follow the correct diet;
- maintaining an incorrect lifestyle: alcohol abuse, drugs, Smoking;
- injury of a joint in the past;
- unstable hormonal background;
- severe hypothermia;
- interaction with toxins and allergens.
Each person has the cause of the disease will differ, as well as arising in the process of inflammation symptoms.
What is the disease?
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The pathology is characterized by various symptoms, as reactive arthritis accompanied by systemic lesions with involvement in the destructive process the following areas of the body:
- of the genitourinary system;
- spinal column;
- skin, mucous membranes, any organ;
Important to assess the overall clinical picture is a symptoms that occurs directly in the joint. Such is about a couple of weeks after penetration into the body of infection or exposure to another precipitating factor.
First suffering knee, ankle, small joints of the feet and hands. Articular syndrome is characterized by the following features:
- the asymmetry of the affected areas;
- swelling of the affected area;
- redness of the skin;
- local high temperature;
- the accumulation of fluid in the joint;
- inflammatory process involving the periarticular tissue;
- pain or dull aching.
Symptomatology of the disease does not occur in all cases and is secondary. If involved in the pathological process in the urogenital tract, often diagnose urethritis and cervicitis, which are characterized by such signs;
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- mucous or purulent secretions in the process of urination;
- a burning sensation when emptying;
- intermenstrual bleeding and crowmagnum during intercourse;
- inflammation of the prostate and appendages of the testicle.
When involvement of the eyes may develop conjunctivitis, uveitis, iridocyclitis – pathologies, which are accompanied by such symptoms:
- watery eyes;
- sharp pain;
- feeling the presence of the foreign object;
- redness of the mucous membranes;
- a decrease in visual acuity.
If reactive arthritis involves the defeat of the skin, it causes of psoriatic rash, thickening of the epidermis of the palms and feet. There is increased brittle nails, change their color to yellowish shade.
Severe pathology characterized by an inflammatory process in the internal organs: the heart developing myocarditis, in the kidneys glomerulonephritis, in the nervous system – meningoencephalitis.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
To treatment was as quick and easy it is important to diagnose the disease, namely in the first stages of development.
In addition to the patient survey on the prescription of the appearance of symptoms and their character, it is necessary to conduct other diagnostic measures. So, prescribe ultrasound, magnetic resonance and computed tomography of the joints.
From laboratory studies, which are required for proper diagnosis, it is worth noting the blood and urine. If necessary, conduct a test for rheumatoid factor.
Disease occurring at the initial phase requires conservative treatment, whereas the disease in a state of neglect cannot be corrected otherwise than through the intervention of the surgeon.
Drug treatment of reactive arthritis involves the reception of the following drugs:
- antibiotic remedies, which are effective for the elimination of residual infections;
- immunomodulatory drugs and immunosuppressive drugs, which normalize the functioning of the immune system;
- anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed for the elimination of the inflammatory manifestations;
- glucocorticoid agents used, if the disease is complicated;
- to boost the immune system help vitamin complexes;
- eliminate the pain and swelling you can use local therapy: the use of special ointments and compresses.
Of great importance in the treatment of reactive arthritis has and diet of the patient, which must be complete.
Mandatory products that you want to use in the development of the disease, is a marine fish and flax oil, which is added to food. It is forbidden to include in the diet spicy and too salty food.
About the consequences and prevention
If the delay to start the therapy of the disease (in the later stages of development), can cause irreversible consequences, which are manifested in the following:
- the transition of inflammation in the chronic course, the patient will have for a long time to take anti-inflammatory drugs, which are being accepted in large numbers, involve other, more dangerous consequences for the whole organism;
- muscle weakness that occurs on the background of limiting the mobility of the joints;
- chronic pain syndrome in the affected joint, which causes partial or complete loss of ability to work;
- the development of chronic pathology of a particular organ that was involved in the process with the development of reactive arthritis.
Of course, negative consequences, as the disease can be avoided. To achieve this goal it is important to follow some simple guidelines:
- observe the rules of personal hygiene;
- to lead a healthy lifestyle;
- consume only healthy foods and follow the rules of rational nutrition.
The main rule of the prevention of the development of reactive arthritis – early detection and treatment of diseases that can cause its development.