Rupture of the medial meniscus: symptoms and treatments
The medial meniscus is the inner cartilage located in the knee joint. He had an important function — compensates for irregularities in the bone and makes the joint smoother. During the movement of the meniscus changes shape and shrinks. Rupture of medial meniscus of the knee joint is a serious disease that is provoked by trauma to the cartilage.
Prevalence and causes of defeat
Internal lesions of the joint is quite common in modern medicine. Damage of medial meniscus is a leader among all such injuries. In most cases, susceptible to such disease athletes. According to statistics, 80% of patients suffer from damage to the inner meniscus, 15% — from damage outer part of the cartilage and 5% of patients suffer an injury of both menisci.
This files most often be exposed to similar disease not only athletes, but people whose employment involves heavy physical exertion. The risk group includes patients from 20 to 45 years. In adolescents, a similar disease is extremely rare due to the anatomical properties of the body. The defeat of the right and left menisci occurs with the same frequency. Among patients with a similar diagnosis found more men than women.
Ruptures of the meniscus of the knee joint as the result of indirect injuries of the Shin and knee. However, there are instances when the cause of the disease was continuous extension — flexion joint or direct trauma to the knee. Re-injury of the injured area can cause chronic disease. Subsequently, the patient will be enough to make any simple physical exercise, to get the gap of cartilage.
The cause of the destruction of the meniscus and infringement of his work may be any minor injury. If its time has not discovered and is not cured, its background can develop this disease. At risk are patients with gout, rheumatism, and those who are forced to move a lot or work standing long time.
If the injury is of a combined nature, most often the injury occurs not only medial meniscus of the knee joint and the joint capsule, ligaments and other parts of the knee.
The symptoms of traumatic ruptures
At the age of 20 to 30 years, the deformation of the medial meniscus occurs mainly as a result of physical injury. This happens usually as a result of the sharp turn, which involves ligaments of the knee and lower leg. When the entire leg is rotated in one direction, but the upper part is sharply shifted, the knee ligaments can withstand the strain and burst.
Once damage happens, the patient has sharp pain in the hip and knee swelling is formed. If the meniscus tear occurs in the place where there are blood vessels, trauma, blood begins to accumulate in the joint. As a result, the patient starts hemarthrosis. In the process swells the whole kneecap. If the patient has trauma to the medial meniscus of the knee joint, it means that the pain will be to such an extent powerful that it can hardly move. But in some cases, the pain is still manifest only in repeated, significant physical exertion.
Knee damage can be caused not only by a similar injury. But acute traumatic meniscal tear is accompanied by an extensive tumor and can very quickly occur. Such trauma can have a negative effect on the operation of the lateral meniscus.
In this part dislocation the tibia is pushed forward and the meniscus can be damaged by clamping between 2 bones.
Manifestations of chronic rupture of
Most often such injury occurs in patients older than 40 years. Rarely this disease is manifested by tumors, lumps or swelling. So to see any changes with the naked eye is rather difficult. But despite the fact that visible signs of rupture may not be, happen damage to the joint may even as a result of minor manipulation (squatting, bending the knee). In chronic rupture of the joint occurs when damage to the adjacent cartilage that covers the femur and the tibia. Often have full or partial blockade of the joint and increased pain.
The severity of symptoms in rupture of the ligaments of the knee joint may be different. Some patients may have such knee pain that they can’t simply move. Others experience minor pain during exercise. Damage of the meniscus that part of the ligament that came off, they interfere with the operation of the knee joint. If the damage is small and has not been a complete break, then the walk will be marked pain, slight difficulty of movement and a kind of clicking in the knee.
When a serious injury is complete immobilization of the patient. This is due to the fact that the severed part of the joint capsule moves inside the knee and prevents normal movement of joints.
Depending on what part of the meniscus has been damaged, difficulty bending or straightening the knee.
Methods of treating injury
Methods of treatment of a meniscus tear can be different. If the patient found the knee injury, the treatment can be operating or non-invasive. At surgery, an incision is made around the injured part of the knee. The damaged section of the meniscus is cut out completely, and instead installed a transplant. If the medial collateral ligament was completely damaged, it is replaced. If any other part of the knee mechanism was damaged, manipulation is performed with the adjacent to the damaged area of cartilage. If any part of the joint capsule was not damaged, the operation ends.
To treat meniscus tear can and non-surgical way. But this practice is possible only if the gap was not complete and damaged only some part of the meniscus. Such damage is accompanied by pain and tightening of the meniscus between the joints. The treatment is to decrease stress on the ligaments of the knee joint. In some situations, the patient is instructed to wear a cast. Thus, the ability to move is eliminated. But this method of treatment is possible only under the condition that the knee injury was not limited to the meniscus tear. In the presence of additional injuries (fractures, sprains), such a treatment will be effective.
If the injury is limited only in damage to the meniscus, to wear a plaster is not necessary. Full immobilization is not helpful to the joint, and the patient will be quite hard to move and to do anything. In the end, after a long period of inactivity, the joints may «stick together» and to recover after such treatment will be hard enough.
The best option of non-surgical treatment medication. In addition, it is necessary to limit training in any sport, to abandon heavy physical exertion, try to be in a state of rest.
Additionally, as the recovery can be included in treatment exercises to strengthen the muscles and joints.
A cyst of the meniscus
Cyst of medial meniscus is a disease that is triggered by the accumulation of fluid in the knee joint. Quite often this disease is a result of long physical loads and constant exposure to the meniscus. A cyst is a disease that affects professional athletes and people who are often forced to use physical force.
Formed a cyst of the medial meniscus is a result of accumulation of mucoid substance in the tissues. Such swelling affects the edge of the meniscus. The cyst in the first place may cause a certain deformation, which increases the risk of injury to this area of the body. Further, the result of a strong shock may occur injury to the medial meniscus of the knee joint.
Most often, these exposures are of the lateral meniscus. This part of the knee hurt more often, but to sever the ligaments in that area hard enough. In lateral meniscus injuries often disturbed the inflow and outflow of blood. Therefore, this area is subjected to more chronic tears. Lesion of meniscus cyst brings a number of unpleasant sensations. The patient feels sharp pain when moving and minimum load on the leg. From the damaged section of the leg is often swollen, it swells and undergoes deformation.
The tumor is firm to the touch, when palpation causes severe pain.
In the formation of cysts in the knee joint affects not only the affected area. In addition, what happens the visible deformity of the knee and lead to pain, a change occurs in the tibia. The defeat of the limbs does not occur immediately. But on x-ray you can see the change. To undertake the treatment you need immediately, because such changes can lead to osteoarthritis. This means that it may result in deformed bones and limbs in General.
In the event of destruction of the cyst of the medial meniscus the risk of rupture is relatively small. This is because this part of the knee joint less susceptible to rupture and more stable.
In case of damage of medial meniscus with a cyst on the external background there are no significant changes, so to notice such a disease at the initial stage is very difficult.
The treatment of the disease
First and foremost, the patient must come the diagnosis from the podiatrist or surgeon, to he was diagnosed with a damaged meniscus. To verify the presence of the cyst in several ways. This can be done by surgery, ultrasound, microscopic examination, computer diagnostics, termporary. Upon detection of a cyst in the joint of the knee, you must do the following:
Medical treatment for the occurrence of cyst can only be used at an early stage of the disease. Otherwise, the result will be. It is desirable to use physiotherapy for small tumors and absence of gap. This can be massage, physiotherapy and swimming.
Surgical treatment is used if the damage cannot be eliminated by using drug treatments. At surgery, the surgeon makes an incision and removes the meniscus cysts. Either all the liquid that formed in the joint, is removed. In this case, installation of the graft is not required.