Sarcoma of the spine
Cancerous tumors of the spine in our time are diagnosed infrequently. The most aggressive variety of the disease are recognized sarcoma of the spine that develops due to own tissues of the spine. The risk of sarcoma is its rapid progression, on average, development takes place over time from one to twelve months.
Malignant lesions of the spine dangerous because their detection is a challenge. This is due to the unclear symptoms and some difficulties in diagnosis. It is because there are cases of incorrect diagnosis, which entails the assignment of improper treatment.
Medicine sarcoma is divided into several types, including osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, chordoma, fibrosarcoma and others that occur less frequently. The recognition of sarcoma by force only highly qualified oncologists and surgeons. Each type of pathology diagnosed separately and requires specific treatment.
The causes of sarcoma
Sarcoma of the spine can provoke a variety of reasons. The appearance of the disease may be associated with a history of earlier trauma and diseases or to be the result of metastasis from adjacent organs affected by cancer. Therefore, determining the exact cause almost always causes some difficulties. It is assumed that the development of the pathology may be due to genetic defects that start to occur already during fetal growth of the embryo in the process of cell division.
According to another theory, sarcoma of the spine, as, indeed, cancer of the knee joint and other organs, arise from a specific program of development of abnormal cells (tumor growth), inherent in the human organism initially. But the launch of this program occurs only under certain triggering conditions. To this is added:
- systematic effects on the body some chemicals or radiation;
- the constant violation of diet;
- prolonged and regular exposure to sunlight or artificial radiation in solariums;
- prolonged tobacco Smoking, which is ranked and passive Smoking;
- injury and birth defects.
To say that these factors provoke the development of cancer only in the spine, it is impossible. Their impact can cause the appearance of cancers in any organ.
The appearance of the tumor near the spine often leads to metastases in the spinal column. This is due to the threading of the spine perfectly developed system of blood supply, contributing to a fairly rapid hematogenous metastasis pathology.
The symptoms of cancer of the spine
Clinical manifestations in cancer are dependent on many factors. Symptoms are extremely dependent on the height level of the lesion, the level of involvement of the spinal cord, the speed of progression of the tumor, the amount of redundant space within the channel and direct form of sarcoma. Of course, the overall condition here is important.
Recognize the symptoms of sarcoma often is not immediately. The difficulty of identifying is driven by extensive symptoms. However, it should be remembered that a sarcoma is a pathology localized in the spinal cord and the tissues surrounding it. Therefore, the most dangerous symptoms are a by displacement of the nerve roots and the spinal cord, resulting in damage to these structures.
The symptoms in Kaposi determined by several factors.
Somewhat apart, we can consider the symptoms of sarcoma depending on the height of location of pathology. The symptoms of the disease located in the cervical, lumbar, thoracic and other areas of the spine are quite different.
The main symptoms of cancer lesions of the spine are:
- the problems that arise when moving, and the apparent muscle weakness;
- quite severe pain in the spinal region, worse in the supine position, with the reception of pain medication hardly helps;
- muscle spasms and pain in the legs;
- deterioration of vestibular function and paresthesia;
- the feeling of cold feet, clammy and cold skin;
- incontinence of the excretions, paralysis.
The symptoms of sarcoma are quite similar with symptoms of many other malignant pathologies. The history is usually short, and the development of the disease can occur quickly (a few weeks) and slowly (several years).
The development of chondrosarcoma
One of the most common types of oncological pathologies of the spine is chondrosarcoma, which is about a quarter of all bone cancers. Chondrosarcoma usually affects people over the age of thirty years, and males are affected almost twice as often women. Chondrosarcoma usually develops slowly, some acceleration is observed after the rupture of the tumor into the soft tissue through the periosteum.
Chondrosarcoma can affect any bone and develops from cartilage, passing enchondral ossification. In the spine chondrosarcoma occurs less frequently than in other places. Lose the elbow or knee joints are also not very often. The most frequently detected pathology in the bones of the pelvis, shoulder and ribs.
Some part of patients (about fifteen percent) chondrosarcoma is secondary in nature, developing as a consequence of other pathologies (osteochondromas, solitary osteochondroma, enchondroma, etc.). There is often metastasis to the spine from the tumor of a joint (hip or shoulder).
Chondrosarcoma is usually detected quite accurately, as highly characteristic symptoms: substantial back pain, the sacrum and the femoral region caused by compression of the sciatic nerve, as well as the difficulty of joint mobility in the immediate vicinity of the pathology. In addition, quite often the place where a localized tumor, swells, and sometimes develops sciatica.
Detection of the disease is usually done with x-rays. The photographs clearly evident destruction of the cortical layer, but the periosteal layers are not visible very clearly.
Diagnosis of the disease
Diagnosis of sarcoma, as with any disease, very important to detect and determine treatment programs. The diagnostic procedure uses x-rays, MRI and CT. In addition, a number of neurological tests to assess the neurological affectation system and some other body parameters.
At the final stage diagnosis can be performed bone marrow biopsy to accurately determine the type of pathology, type of cancer cells and the development of the disease. However, biopsy is the final confirming factor in other cancer pathologies. For example, this method is confirmed by cancer of the knee.
Sometimes used some helper methods, among which the polymerase chain reaction, ultrasound, microscopic or immunohistochemical studies, and a bone scan. Often the identification of sarcomas of the spine occurs during the examination with the aim of identifying the causes of pain in the spine or in the neck.
X-rays show the presence of bone changes, and more informative for diagnosis uses computed tomography. After that, the nature and morphology of education specified by the laboratory studies.
Treatment of pathology
Type cancer tumors, tumor localization and extent of lesions of the spine have a strong influence on the selection of methods of treatment and largely determine the prognosis of survival of the patient. For the compilation of the therapeutic approach involved the Council, whose members include the oncologist, the surgeon, the radiologist and other specialists. Prognosis recently improved significantly thanks to modern approaches to treatment that often allows to preserve the quality of life of the patient.
Usually, treatment is carried out comprehensively. It is typical for almost all types of cancer, for example, are also treated with cancer joint.
|Surgery.||The main thing that is almost always present in the complex is the surgical excision of tumors together with the closest lymph nodes.|
|Chemotherapy.||Quite often, chemotherapy is combined with radiation therapy.|
|Targeted therapy.||Not less frequently used and targeted therapy, which is a point (target) effect on the tumor, which eliminates the cause of proliferation of tumor, however, does not harm the surrounding tissues.|
|Brachytherapy.||When the sarcoma is located deep inside the spine, resort to brachytherapy. This treatment consists in introducing into the tumor a special capsule with a radiation source, destroying sarcoma.|
In any case, the prognosis of sarcomas is determined by such factors as the type and type of tumor, its localization, age of patient and presence of metastasis. In addition, of great importance is the correctness and timeliness of starting treatment. The forecast is largely influenced by and a very long rehabilitation period. Due to the presence of all these factors is that the forecast is extremely individual to each patient. Despite timely diagnosis and use of the most advanced treatment methods, guarantee the positive forecast is present not always.
Sarcoma of the spine is the disease whose treatment is very difficult and extremely dependent on accurate and timely diagnosis.