Scoliosis of the thoracic spine: symptoms and treatment

Diagnosis and treatment of scoliosis of the thoracic spine

Scoliosis called the curvature of the human spine. Most often it occurs in the thoracic spine.

In severe scoliosis with the naked eye in a human visible distortion of the pelvis, and gait disturbance.




The causes and development of disease

  • Insufficiency of the muscular and ligamentous apparatus (underdeveloped muscles);
  • Prolonged strain on the spine (carrying weight in one hand, often being in the same position);
  • The disease: poliomyelitis, syringomyelia;
  • Anomalies of spine (congenital abnormalities);
  • Partial paralysis;
  • Back injuries (fractures);
  • Herniated discs.

There are cases when to identify the etiology of the disease is impossible, in this case, the diagnosis is idiopathic scoliosis, i.e., curvature of unclear nature.

Classification of types of diseases

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Depending on the bending scoliosis of the thoracic spine are divided into:

  1. right sided scoliosis;
  2. left-sided scoliosis.

Time curvature of the spine are divided into two types:

  1. congenital ( as a result of developmental disorders of the spine or genetic disorders);
  2. purchased.

Acquired pathology of the spine are:

  • Traumatic.
  • Reflex ( when a person is forced to bend the spine due to severe pain, such as neuritis, rheumatism).
  • Idiopathic.
  • Rachitic (after suffering rickets).
  • Paralytic ( due to nervous disorders, leading to paralysis of the nerve roots or muscles).
  • The usual ( the result of poor posture).

Shaped scoliosis of the chest klassificeret:

  1. C-shaped ( curvature from one bend);
  2. S-shaped ( two-bend);
  3. Z-shaped ( three-bend).

Depending on the stage of development of scoliosis may be:

  1. Non-structural, i.e., the spine is practically not deformed and is not fixed in the wrong position.
  2. Structural, i.e. there is a transformation of the vertebrae: their merging with subsequent fixation in an abnormal position.
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The signs, which can determine the presence of the disease

The signs of spinal curvature are:

  • The feeling that one limb shorter than the other.
  • Lameness, the need for additional support, fatigue when in the vertical position.
  • The asymmetry of the back, a shovel, shoulders.
  • The formation of the rib hump.
  • The tension in the back muscles.
  • Pain radiating to the lower back.

Methods of diagnosis of the disease, used modern medicine

The main method of diagnosis, which is used for studies of the spine — radiography. During the development of scoliosis in the picture are seen not curved and beveled spines, intermediate and neutral vertebrae.

For a more accurate diagnosis of x-ray is performed and in two projections: anterior and lateral. If necessary, the doctor sends the patient for magnetic resonance imaging.

Laboratory diagnosis of scoliosis is not carried out: biological fluid are examined only after a doctor’s prescription to identify the broken functions of organs.

The degree of development of scoliosis

First degree is characterized by the angle of deformation of the spine to 5 degrees. The patient in the standing position of the blade is located in relation to the spine at different distances. When tilting the patient markedly deviated to the side, while the slouch invisible. Very often the person complaining of minor back pain that intensified after exercise.

At the second degree of the angle of deformation of the spine varies in the range 6-20 degrees. Stooped posture and scoliosis in a patient visible externally. When tilted forward, the patient is allocated a rib hump, and the man complains of muscle tension in the back, pain that occurs after a long stay in the monotonous posture. The patient said that it was not able long to perform physical work, because «tired back».

The angle of deformation in the spinal column in the third degree of scoliosis is 20-30 degrees. Deformity of the spine and stooped posture strongly expressed, the torso and the pelvis tilted. Becomes noticeable the curvature of the thorax, scapula located on different height levels. The patient noted severe pain in his back. There are new symptoms: disrupted bodies, dyspnea, fatigue after work. As a result of compression of the spinal cord possible local violation of the sensitivity.

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For the fourth degree of scoliosis, characterized by curvature of the spine more than 30 degrees. The patient constantly under severe pain, his movement is limited. Noticeable to the naked eye, not only curvature of the spine, and entire body of the patient. Deformity of the chest pronounced. All the internal organs are displaced, their functions are violated. Due to spinal cord injury, possible paralysis, impaired defecation and urination.

How is the treatment of pathology

First and second degree scoliosis treated by conservative methods: the patient needs to eat properly, regularly to walk. On the bed you must put a wooden shield that the bed was tougher. The patient should regularly wear a corset and perform special exercises.

Therapeutic exercise include:

  • Massage.
  • The medical diagnosis.
  • Correction position.
  • Exercises on the water.

Some doctors are practicing manual therapy.

The essence of the procedure is that first the specialist relaxes the muscles of the back, then sharp movement attaches to the vertebra in the correct position.

About the benefits of this method go to the most contradictory rumors.

Along with manual therapy is used medication: assigned anti-inflammatory preparations, chondroprotectors, vitamin.

To ensure that the scoliosis did not develop again, it is necessary to consolidate the results obtained. The patient needs to strengthen the back muscles, regularly use the pool and exercise.

A set of exercises

  1. You need to lie on your stomach, chin to put the brush stacked on one another.
  2. Put your hands on waist, head and shoulders slightly raised, make sure the shoulder blades are connected. Belly off the floor not to raise. Try to hold that position.
  3. From the starting position you need to begin slowly to translate the hands first up, then slowly to the sides to the shoulders.
  4. From the starting position raise legs alternately, keeping them for 10-15 seconds each.
  5. Raise both legs, keeping them on weight 15 seconds.
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After exercise to relax for half an hour.

Surgical treatment

In the later stages of scoliosis conservative treatment is almost useless. Patients are offered to do the surgery. Surgical intervention involves two methods.

First — front mobilization of the spine. In the operation of the angle of deformation is reduced by 30-50 degrees.

The second method is helpeliminate, including the correction of the deformity. As a result of surgical intervention, the deformation angle reduced to 22 degrees.

Any of the methods should be carried out by surgeons in the absence of contraindications.

Surgery allows to decrease the rib hump and to expand the intercostal space. This measure will save the internal organs from shifting and reduce pain.

Video: How to exercise in the curvature of the thoracic spine