Seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis: what is it, treatment
Seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis: what’s the difference?
In modern society, is increasingly common trend of increasing of system of diseases of organs and systems. In our opinion, this is strictly the problem of urbanization and globalization.
Because none of the old records, none of the great scientist of antiquity and the middle ages you will find no record of such disease.
The system called disease, which affects one or a complete system, for example, locomotor apparatus, or several such systems.
Often the cause serve allergies, sensitization in combination with genetic factors. One such disease is rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic disease that affects mainly the joints, the type of erosive-destructive inflammation — arthritis.
The essence of the disease consists in lesion of the articular tissues of different etiological factors and the development of immunological response.
Causes dangerous disease
Great importance is attached to infectious agents:
- Viruses – Epstein-Barr, herpes, etc, bacterial agents – hemolytic Streptococcus group B.
- Mycoplasma. It is for this reason that the shells of microogranisms has a tropism, that is, have the point of application, the articular tissue. And if it enters the body immediately go up to her, causing the infestation and inflammation.
- Genetically determined factors – the defect of the HLA system (a set of all genes present in the body).
The mechanism of the disease
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The etiological factor penetrates into the joint and affects the synovium. In response, the development of the local immune response and produces a large quantity of immunoglobulins A, M, G.
These immunoglobulins are considered by our body as antigens, i.e. foreign agents. There is an allocation of antibodies to them. As a result, the evolved antibodies capture the antigens and are deposited on the synovial membrane, cartilage or bone, causing more and more developing immune response.
In the area of inflammation tightens the cellular element of the immune system, the destruction of the cells composing the tissue. Thus, the process becomes chronic, so as to remove these immune complexes from the joint is almost impossible, and they persistiruut there for life.
At first the plan goes diseases pain syndrome that develops as a polyarthritis, that is, pain in several joints.
Pain often at night, especially in the second half. Observed stiffness in the morning. If the onset is acute, the primary distinct toxic syndrome. Namely, the temperature rise to peak, headache, joint, muscle pain, nausea, and poor General health status.
Primarily affects the joints of the hand. Often it can be symmetrical, i.e. both hands are involved.
There were various deformations of the hands: the thumb moves back, the whole hand can go backwards, shortening the length of phalanges.
The motion in the joints partially or fully constrained. Like a chain reaction include mechanisms of atrophy: skin and muscle as the hand moves, the muscles die off.
Seronegative and seropositive form of the disease: features
Rheumatoid arthritis is considered seropositive, if after introduction of antigens in the synovial membrane of the joint as antibodies secreted rheumatoid factor. Is a protein produced by our body.
Seronegative diagnosed when biochemical analysis of blood, this protein is not detected.
That is, rheumatoid factor is autoantigen (developed own body).
Therefore, seropositive rheumatoid arthritis refers to a group of autoimmune, and the negative form – is evolving in response to the introduction and irritation do foreign antigen.
What’s the difference?
The main difference in these forms of the disease is the onset of the disease.
For the seropositive form is characterized by subacute beginning, the body temperature does not increase or rises only slightly.
Lose brush initially, the lesion is symmetrical. The process may involve large joints, e.g. neck and lumbar spine. Expressed pain, morning stiffness.
The progression of the disease is gradual.
The negative form is characterized by acute onset with high persistent fever. Marvel at first maybe some one joint, but gradually get involved in the process and others. In this pain syndrome is also expressed, but morning stiffness is less noticeable.
Disease progression is faster than in a positive form. And, unfortunately, treatment of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis very long and complex.
But I should say that the seropositive form is found in 85-90% of all cases. The negative form accounts for only 10-15% of cases.
Diagnosis of disease
As with any other disease, the examination of the patient begins with laboratory research:
- General analysis of blood. Pay attention to triasovye indicators, i.e., signs of acute inflammation. This is the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (normal 2-15), leukocytosis with a left shift.
- Biochemical analysis of blood. Also defined acute-phase parameters: fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, different fractions of globulins.
- Determination of the presence of rheumatoid factor in the blood. This analysis is called the reaction Vaaler-rose. This is the reaction of agglutination, that is, bonding of the particles.
- Puncture of the joint cavity to survey her. This punctate it is possible to detect more number of immune bodies, rheumatoid factor, some bacterial agents or their particles.
- X-rays of the joint. By the pictures it is possible to determine the severity and the stage of development of the disease. One distinguishes 4 stages, 1 being the initial of its form, and 4 – the development of ankylosis, that is, the complete absence of the joint space, bony contact surfaces, and the impossibility of movement in the joint.
How to cure the disease?
In the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis apply the so-called basic therapy.
It includes the use of the 5 groups of drugs:
- gold preparations;
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
- anti-inflammatory steroid;
- the sulfonamides.
However, nowadays, the gold preparations are practically not used due to the large number of side effects and virtually no therapeutic effects.
In recent years, the increasing popularity of earn drugs, the so-called biological groups. These include, for example, preparations containing the elements of the activating factors, tumor necrosis.
This group includes such drugs as Humira, Rituxan, Anakinra etc.
When applying all these drugs also recommended using antacid drugs that protect the stomach lining from the action of the acidity.
Seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis can be cured by the same drugs, but in the form of seronegative use higher dosages.
Complications of the disease
The disease is also dangerous due to the large number of complications. These include:
- rheumatoid heart disease: this can be rheumatoid endo-, peri — or myocarditis;
- rheumatoid lung;
- polyneuropathy, that is the death of nerves in the affected area and, consequently, violation of motor and sensory activity;
- Sjogren’s syndrome – dryness of the lacrimal and mucous glands, roughly speaking, when there are tears and saliva;
- hepatolienal syndrome – enlargement of the spleen and liver;
Prevention is the treatment of any inflammatory bacterial and viral diseases. Also, you should try not to be subjected to hypothermia and overload of the joints.
Often pass a comprehensive examination. This will help prevent the development of not only rheumatoid arthritis, but also many other serious diseases.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a terrible disease that most often affects the hands, thus causing their deformation. All this in addition to the obvious aesthetic defect causes severe pain.
Over time, it becomes impossible to move the affected area of the hand. Naturally, this reduces the level of human life, its performance, health and mood. Do not run their health, often properties and prevent the development of such severe consequences. Be gentler to yourself!