Shoulder dislocation: causes, symptoms, treatment when you injure the joint
One of the most common types of traumatic injuries of the musculoskeletal system of the person is a dislocated shoulder joint. Thus there is a complete violation of the anatomical features of the mating joint surfaces. To find out how to treat a dislocated shoulder, you need to understand what caused the injury.
Causes of dislocation of the shoulder joint
Shoulder dislocation — injury is quite common. This is due to the characteristic features of the structure of the joint and her function. The shoulder joint has a spherical shape. It forms the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula. The joint allows movements in 3 directions with large amplitude. Due to this, the human hand can fully perform their functions.
Large range of motion leads to instability of the compound. This is because the surface of the connection head and the scapular glenoid cavity is fairly small. On the rim of scapular depression is the cartilage cushion, which to some extent increases the area of contact.
In the junction there are virtually no ligaments, the function of the ligaments, muscles perform. The articular capsule is movable. The articulation is retained mostly by the muscles of the hand. These features create the conditions for a violent displacement of the head. Thus there is subluxation or dislocation of the shoulder. Anatomical features of the shoulder joint is one of the main reasons for his frequent injuries.
Most often shoulder dislocation or subluxation occurs when the human fall on an outstretched hand. The direction of impact does not coincide with the axis of the connection. If the blow was strong enough damage happens, which contributes to the lack of strength of the muscles. So often subluxation or dislocation of the shoulder occurs in children and seniors, the muscle corset which is the weakest.
Sometimes dislocation of the shoulder results in cutting motion with his hand. There are times when it occurs without any certain reasons. This dislocation is called habitual. Pathology of articulation can be both hereditary and acquired. Various injuries can become the cause of spontaneous damage: fractures of scapula, clavicle, stretching.
Habitual dislocation of the shoulder often occurs in athletes, people who joints subjected to strong physical stress. The same constant movement can cause stretching of the joint capsule, causing spontaneous dislocation of the shoulder joint.
Symptoms of injury
Most often, when you fall or hit the head of the bone moves forward. The symptoms of shoulder dislocation — pain, swelling of the soft tissues, violation of the connection configuration. With no movement in the joint. With joint palpation detectable displacement of the head. During a touch, the pain increases, perhaps hemorrhage, which causes subcutaneous hematoma. In this case, the blood can enter not only into the soft tissue, but in the cavity of joint, which leads to hemarthrosis.
When the dislocation and other damage:
- stretching muscles;
- ruptures of tendons;
- damage to the joint capsule;
- damage to the neurovascular bundle;
- a fracture of a clavicle;
- fracture of the scapula.
Symptoms of dislocation can be numbness of the muscles, reduced sensitivity.
In the presence of rear shoulder dislocation, which is less common, symptoms are the same. With this damage to the head is felt in the back near the scapula. A dislocated shoulder joint can occur if the blow or the fall of man forward on an outstretched hand. In very rare cases, found lower dislocation with displacement of the head down. A special symptom of this injury — specific posture of the patient. The patient cannot lower the arm, throws back her up.
In addition to the shoulder dislocation may happen again and the subluxation. In this case, the head of the bone has shifted outside of the arm not fully. Subluxation of the shoulder joint is not uncommon.
Treatment of a shoulder injury
Treatment of dislocation of the shoulder joint is carried out in several stages. First of all, the victim should give first aid. If done correctly, the subsequent therapy will be more effective.
The patient need to be sent to the emergency room or immediately call him a doctor. The patient is doing injections of anesthetic drugs and hemostatic means. Definitely need to immobilize the joint. Immobilization is performed by affixing a triangular bandage. In medical institutions for immobilization of the joint using the orthosis.
It is not necessary to treat the affected shoulder ointments. At the beginning of treatment is not appropriate. If the victim has a subluxation, it is necessary to apply cold. It is impossible to straighten the shoulder, it can cause severe pain shock, which will exacerbate the patient’s condition. In addition, such action could lead to increased displacement of the head or tear the capsule and damage to the nervous tissue.
To reduce a shoulder dislocation or subluxation should only surgeon. This operation is carried out in a medical facility. First the doctor determines the type of damage. It does this by assigning x-ray.
Dislocation of the shoulder joint right under. Before surgery the patient should not eat or drink because the anesthesia may cause vomiting. When the doctor reduce the dislocation or subluxation, he should send a force in such a manner to return the head of the humerus in place. In this case you will hear a clicking sound.
Once the joint is right, it should be fixed using plaster or an orthosis. Immobilization cast is applied for 3 weeks. At this time there is a formation of connective scar tissue at the site violated the joint capsule and damaged the cartilage cushion.
Recovery after injury
After reduction of the dislocation, patients are prescribed outpatient treatment. Then begins the period of early rehabilitation. It lasts for 3 months, since the orthosis or plaster cast. Patient is prescribed massage, physiotherapy, light exercise. Such treatment is necessary to restore all the functions of the damaged joint.
After 3 months, a period later rehabilitation. Physiotherapy and massage is still relevant. Physical exercises with increased load. Properly conducted rehabilitation should lead to full restoration of all functions of the hand. If there are no additional complications, the rehabilitation was successfully completed no later than 6 months after dislocation of the shoulder joint.
If the patient suffers from frequent spontaneous dislocation, surgical intervention. During the operation the surgeon performs plastic joint capsule, the cartilage cushion, muscle tendon, or glenoid cavity. Properly conducted treatment of dislocation of the shoulder joint and rehabilitation of patients contribute to full recovery of all functions of the shoulder.