Sirenomelia (mermaid syndrome): causes, treatment, prognosis, pictures, pathology

Sirenomelia: features of development and the prognosis of the syndrome mermaid

The term «sirenomelia» comes from the Greek «seiren,» which means fairy tale character, siren, seductress, and «melos» limb, body part.

The mermaid syndrome is an extremely rare congenital anomaly.

Because of the fused legs, the kids are conformed to the image of a mermaid. The prognosis of the disease is disappointing. The treatment is virtually impossible.

Particularly violations of the

The disease is a series of abnormalities in newborn children:

  • fusion of the lower limbs (heal bone or soft tissue);
  • the absence of the rectum, bladder, and sacral spine;
  • the absence or deviation of external and internal genitals;
  • fused lower limbs;
  • the underdeveloped gastrointestinal tract;
  • agenesia bilateral kidneys.

Those born with malformed children is only one umbilical artery, instead of two, and is disturbed by large trunks of the arteries of the lower limbs, hypoplasia of the aortic bifurcation. The lower mesenteric and renal artery may be absent. Thus there is a circulation disorder that develops terrible disease.

The causes of pathology

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Until now doctors and scientists can’t figure out the causes of sirenomelia. But there are several theories, which are inclined:

  • abnormality in the genes of the parents of the newborn;
  • the abuse of alcohol;
  • diseases of the mother during pregnancy;
  • insufficient blood flow to the lower limbs in the fetus.
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Environmental factors that affect the development of the syndrome of the mermaid are not defined. But 16 % of deaths in pregnant women who have diabetes mellitus.

Some believe that sirenomelia is a multifactorial anomaly that should be several reasons for formation of deviation.

The severity of mermaid syndrome

There are two severity sirenomelia :

  1. Soft degree. In this case, merge the soft tissue of the foot one. The lower limbs can be fixed completely or at the ankles. The development of the main leg bones is absolutely correct. With surgery can correct the defect of the lower extremities. Other damage determined by x-ray and with the help of special tests.
  2. A severe form. The degree of deformation in the newborn neglect so that you do not want to submit this picture. Two legs completely poorly developed and completely fused. The structure of the foot may be completely absent, and throughout the lower limb there are only two bones.

Diagnosis in the prenatal period

In the womb of the future mother from the first weeks of conception the fetus developing congenital fusion of the lower extremities. Already on 11 week ultrasound, diagnosed with mermaid syndrome.

Ultrasound of the fetus in a pregnant oligohydramnios is observed, the embryo is not visible kidneys and there is a defect of the lower extremities. With the diagnosis of the fetus «sirenomelia» in the early stages of pregnancy may occur Samobor.

The chances are minimal

If the newborn survives, produce the surgery in the division of the lower extremities, sometimes you have to make a series of operations.

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As the child is born with disabilities, not only legs, but also the internal organs, surgical treatment is necessary. Other therapies support the patient’s condition.

According to statistics, born 1:100000 kids with anomaly, low birth defect ends fatalities during childbirth or in front of them, only 50% are born alive.

Only live-born babies do not live long, only a couple of days, in rare cases a few months. This factor is due to the abnormality of the internal organs, such as renal failure and absence of the bladder.

Not (happy) story of survivors

But there are always exceptions. There are three stories about patients who have fought for their lives, they were able to grow and develop for several years:

  1. So, in America, a baby girl was born in 1999, with disease, and her name was Shiloh Pepin. For the continuation of life, she had two operations

    on kidney transplantation, and all her life she grew up with fused limbs, as the peculiarity of their construction is not allowed to do surgery. In 10 years, Sheila died of pneumonia.

  2. In 2004 was born in Peru baby Milagros Cerron. She had abnormalities of the digestive tract, kidneys, genital and urinary organs. In 2 years the operation was carried out for the separation of the limbs. Few weeks after a successful series of operations, the girl made the first steps. Also the child did on restoration of the internal organs.
  3. American girl Tiffany Yorks is the oldest mermaid. She was born in 1988 and is still alive. It was done several operations on the separation of the legs and restore the health of the internal organs. All surgical interventions were successful, in spite of this, the girl is weak, she has to walk with crutches or wheelchairs.