Spinal cord injury: signs, symptoms, treatment

Травма спинного мозга: признак, симптомы, лечение

The internal structure of the spinal cord

Traumatic disease of the spinal cord — for many people these words sound like a death sentence. Few people know, but this term applies only in Russian medicine. Spinal cord injuries occur in people at different ages. Almost every injury of the spinal cord and spine can be accompanied by complications. Every defeat is behind your symptoms. They are able to indicate the disease and the area of damage. Modern diagnostics can determine the nature of such injuries. When lesions of the spine effectively apply conservative and surgical treatment. An integral part of the fight against disease becomes and physical rehabilitation.

Symptoms of this disease are:

  • shock;
  • decreased muscle tone;
  • loss of sensitivity
  • the presence of hematoma, foreign bodies, bone fragments;
  • the transition of adjacent nerve cells in a state of protective inhibition.


Reversible and irreversible

Lesions of the spine vary depending on the nature of the damage. They are divided into losses:Травма спинного мозга: признак, симптомы, лечение

  • associated with tears and torn ligaments;
  • in the form of cracks, various kinds of fractures, breaks no records, dislocations;
  • fractures of the arches and various processes;
  • fractures of the arches and bodies with the presence of displacement or without it.

One trauma to the spine can be worn reversible, some don’t. As a rule, irreversible damage to the spinal cord and spine are interrelated. You need to know: lesions of the spine are not limited only to the body, adjacent tissues and blood vessels also occur destructive changes. The symptoms of these changes and point to the appearance of lesions of the spine. Liquorodynamic and rheological disorders usually accompany various disorders of the spine and spinal cord. And such defeats for them are no exception.

Traumatic disease of the spine is a different effects of lesions of this region. It is the root cause: the effects of various injuries of this area.


Is it possible the restore operation in full volume?

Trauma of spine and spinal cord in its development goes through several stages. This injury can cause shock. Such a loss is properly called spinal shock. The acute phase of spinal injury and spinal cord lasts about 3 days. The victim has symptoms loss of reflexes. The person will be absent motor function. In a milder form the symptoms may manifest in poor coordination. The victim from such damage to the spinal cord often appears and loss of sensation. Against the background of these processes, when the injury has occurred, there will be depression of consciousness and a General decline in muscle tone.

Травма спинного мозга: признак, симптомы, лечениеIn the initial stages when damage to the spine and spinal cord occurs lose the reflex system. Early lesions of the spine and lasts for approximately three weeks. In this case, the injury gradually healed, and the reflex excitability returns to normal.

The symptoms that characterize the early period, characterized in that in the third week after injury in humans, significantly increased muscle tone and hyperreflexia observed.


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Intermediate, late, residually period

This injury in its development goes through and the interim period. If you count 2-3 months from the time of spinal injury, it will be the period. After injuries of the spine and spinal cord, the victim is dominated by flexor or extensor muscle tone. Trauma provokes and hypotrophy of muscles, dysfunction of the joints. Contracture of joints is also indicative of this period, injury to the spinal area.

Late period after spinal cord injury and spine lasts for a year. At this time, people with such injuries should always be under the supervision of medical professionals. All symptoms of a back injury at this stage, doctors consider from the point of view of the dynamics of the development of the clinical picture. You must remember that lesions of the spine can make themselves known at any time. Not even much disturbing injury of the spinal cord do not go unnoticed.

Травма спинного мозга: признак, симптомы, лечение

On the MRI image illustrates the area of spinal cord injury

Residual period after injuries of the spinal cord and spine — a direct proof. The symptoms of residual effects after spinal cord injury can appear fragmented. A sign that the person flows in residual period after such an injury is the formation of a new level of neurological function. The man who had such a defeat, and this time must remain under the supervision of experts. Injury to the spinal cord and spine can be identified and 5-10 years later. It is therefore important to undergo examinations to identify the condition of the spinal cord and spine.

Given that the damage to the spinal cord and spine are interrelated, experts make the following distinction between spinal Department. Spinal cord injury without injury to the spinal cord is the first category. Second: when spinal cord injury no spinal injury. The third category of damage is considered the most dangerous. If it is both spinal cord injury and spine.

The nature of the damage to the spinal division — an important point. Typically, when such a classification of spinal cord injury is dominated by a single symptom of injury.


What is broken?

The human body is not a clockwork mechanism where you can replace a few parts, and it will continue to function. Depending on the type and degree of spinal cord doctors choose the patient’s treatment. Quite often patients meet flexione violations. Their sign is a posterior tear of the ligaments and dislocation of the vertebrae. Hyperextension damage is considered more dangerous. Compression of the spinal cord — leading them to sign. In addition, there is a failure of the anterior longitudinal ligament, which often accompany the dislocation of a vertebral body or disc protrusion. Vertical compression fractures cause damage to the spinal cord and spine. Such a loss is primarily distinguished by the presence of perelomova. In a separate category allocate, and spinal cord injuries resulting from lateral bending.

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Травма спинного мозга: признак, симптомы, лечениеSpinal cord injury and spine can wear stable and unstable. Additionally, these injuries always klassificeret according to their localization. Every injury is classified still in its clinical form. Lose known as concussion of the spinal cord, relates to reversible disorders. Reflexes, and muscle strength, the victim fairly quickly restored. The symptoms that were damage, disappear after a week. More severe in comparison with previous lesion — the spinal cord injury. Such a defeat causes a disruption of almost all vertebrate features, which, depending on its extent, is able to progress rapidly.

Compression of the spinal cord are sometimes treated as a secondary damage following trauma to the vertebrae of the back. Yet this corruption is able to occur due to hematoma or edema and swelling in this area. Such damage is usually the result of several traumatic reasons. The crushing of the spinal cord is even more dangerous. Damage is accompanied by his tears. It is a violation of almost all reflexes. Damage to roots in the early stages is not allocated a marked reflex symptoms, but is different disorders of neurologic nature. If a person has some form of corruption, already at pre-hospital stage it is necessary to provide urgent assistance. It includes the control of vital functions of the victim, giving him analgesics and sedatives.

If there is damage to the spinal cord, it is essential that treatment begin immediately. Only such an approach will allow for the recovery of sensory and motor functions of the body. Usually such injuries are serious implications for the neuro-motor system.

In order to overcome the effects of trauma, requires complex rehabilitation, which will allow people to adapt to the consequences of such injuries and new realities in all aspects of life.


The consequences of such injuries can be dire

Any sudden and unexpected movement of the body may cause a fracture of the vertebral structure. Thus a different value of the pieces, from the large to the microscopic, can damage delicate brain tissue. After such damage immediately killed the part of nerve cells, and the remainder may die later due to oxygen deficiency or due to the inclusion of the suicide program of the cell. The result of the effects of spinal cord injuries depend on their severity. Another important factor is which of the cells affected.

Thus if were used only peripheral nerve cells, which are responsible for adjacent muscle and organs, the consequences of such lesions is not particularly affect the process due to the fact that their work will take over nearby cells. But if the damage is deeper, and it has already been destroyed pathways connecting together the several parts of the brain, in this case, the consequences of such losses can be catastrophic. Thus the brain, which in fact controls the whole body, immediately lose control over all that happens to the body in the area, which is below the spinal injury.

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Травма спинного мозга: признак, симптомы, лечениеThe consequences of such lesions can be of varying severity. It all depends on how much extra was provided with qualified medical aid. Immediately after the negative impact on the spine die all the vital cells. To prevent their extinction, it is necessary to make a number of injections and immediately to conduct an operation that aims to remove vertebral fragments. After that, it is necessary to conduct measures to restore blood circulation and to make the fixation part of the spine that was hurt. Very much depends on the level of skill of the neurosurgeon.

With such a shock it becomes impossible to detect and check the main reflexes. However, none of the organs is not working correctly. The exception is the heart and lungs. This is the only bodies able to operate in standalone mode. It may take a few weeks to exit a state of shock. During this period, you must use electrical pulses to tone the muscles. This is done to ensure that muscle is not atrophied. While they cannot begin to stimulate before a specified period, in order not to aggravate the patient’s condition. Stimulation should be carried out moderately, so as not to cause a second shock. When the shock is finished, a possible recovery phase.

After the shock the body is divided into 2 parts:

  • managed;
  • offline.

The offline part is one that is below the lesion.

From the foregoing it becomes clear that the consequences of such lesions are directly dependent on the nature and severity of the lesion. And how quickly and professionally you will be given first aid, depends on the outcome. To minimize the consequences of defeat must undergo rehabilitation and treatment.