Sprained ankle: causes symptoms and treatment
Injuries that affect the musculoskeletal system are quite serious. Ankle sprain is the displacement of the bones in the joint, accompanied by partial or complete rupture of ligaments. Ankle injury – a very common phenomenon, which requires special attention and serious treatment. On the basis of the ankle joint based motor function of the leg, it is a support when walking. The ankle has a complex structure, it is formed by the articular surfaces of three bones (talus, tibia, and fibula) are covered with hyaline cartilage.
Bones are connected by ligaments that keep them, allowing movement and providing stability to the joint. The ankle joint mainly fixed by two ligaments, the fibular and deltoid. When they get injured, the joint loses its strength and actually becomes unhealthy.
A sprained ankle can happen in any person, regardless of age and physical condition. Such injuries can occur when dropped, exposed legs or an awkward movement. An example is walking with high heels or platform. When one stumbles, the position of the foot and, consequently, the ankle is changed. But the heel and platform make it impossible to return it to its original position. The consequence is trauma.
Causes and symptoms of dislocation of the ankle joint
An important cause of such injuries is a sedentary lifestyle, causing muscles and ligaments considerably weakened and can no longer fully perform its protective and fastening functions. At the slightest negative impacts and loads on the ankle are formed dislocations or subluxation (partial displacement of a joint with tearing of ligaments)
In dislocation of the ankle appear the following symptoms:
- severe pain;
- soft tissue swelling;
- redness of the skin;
- difficulty or impossibility of movement.
The symptoms characterizing the dislocation or subluxation of the ankle depends on the severity of the injury. At the first degree (minor injury, rupture of the individual fibers of the bundles) occurs swelling and edema. Motor function is not impaired. But on palpation of the injury site, the pain increases. Second degree is characterized by the formation of edema on the entire outer surface of the foot. At the break, a strong pain, motor function is preserved, but the walk is accompanied by increased pain.In the third degree the ligament is completely torn, the hematoma and the swelling spread to the whole foot and ankle. The pain is very strong regardless of the impact on the foot. Walking is almost impossible.
First aid, diagnosis and treatment
How to treat ankle sprain? First aid for such injuries can be provide at home. Put the affected foot on a pillow Immobilise her. To reduce the pain, you need to apply ice to the site of injury and give the patient pain medication. If you suspect a dislocated ankle, don’t try to fix it yourself, this action may further aggravate the situation. It is necessary to immediately consult a doctor.
Diagnosis the extent of damage to the ankle is performed using radiography. This method of diagnosis will help to accurately determine the type of injury. Treatment of sprained ankle depends on the type of damage. The first (minor) level of damage to the affected area apply cold compresses to the lower leg impose a tight bandage. Traffic and load on the ankle is reduced to a minimum. After some time you can apply warm baths, ointments and massages. But the fixing patch should be present another two weeks until the complete disappearance of pain. For more complex injuries of the ankle joint, such as dislocation and subluxation, treatment is much more serious. The joints shall be installed not later than two hours after the injury. After reduction a plaster superimposed langada that the patient is 1-12 days. Also shown massage, physiotherapy and physiotherapy. In the most difficult situation of complete rupture of a ligament surgical intervention.
Prevention of sprains, subluxations and sprains of the ankle joint is to strengthen the muscles. You need to exercise, light Jogging, morning gymnastics. All these preventive measures you can do yourself at home. Don’t need to stay too long in one place. If you have a sedentary job, try from time to time to get up and stretch. And don’t wear uncomfortable shoes, which encourages injury.