Suppurative arthritis: causes, symptoms, treatment and complications
Suppurative arthritis is a dangerous disease of the joints, difficult-to-treat
Under suppurative arthritis infected understand the inflammatory process in the joint involving all joint elements.
To cause disease pathogens.
Features of this type of arthritis
The joint is a closed cavity, and that this anatomical feature of its structure creates favorable conditions for the accumulation of purulent content.
But, nevertheless, joint capsule anatomically associated with the blood and lymphatic vessels, which can lead to the spread of infectious focus.
Important! Suppurative arthritis – a disease in which not only can disrupt the function of the leg, he is a danger to the health and life of man.
That can cause disease
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The main cause of this pathology is the infection entering the joint cavity and in the synovium.
There are primary and secondary purulent arthritis:
- Primary suppurative lesions of the joints can be caused by direct contact with infection through the damaged skin, for example, at a trauma or a gunshot wound. Pathogenic microorganisms can get into the cavity of the failure to comply with the rules of asepsis during, diagnostic procedures and surgical interventions.
- Secondary infected inflammation of the joints is much more common.
For secondary infection may cause:
- pathogenic microorganisms can penetrate from nearby tissues affected by cellulitis and abscess;
- disease-causing pathogens often come from the nearby site of osteomyelitis of the nearest bone;
- there are cases of hitting the joint of infection through the blood or lymph, for example, in sepsis;
- purulent lesions of the joints can be a complication of many infectious diseases, for example gonorrhea, erysipelas, influenza, etc.
Among the causative agents of septic arthritis are often found staphylococci, streptococci, and sometimes with typhus germs, gonococci, Escherichia coli.
What joints are affects and what the characteristics of each
Most often this disease affects the knee, ankle and hip joints.
Purulent arthritis affects the knee, ankle and hip joints.
Every joint disease has its own characteristics:
- The knee joint is most susceptible to purulent inflammation. It is often injured in sports, falls, and even fights. So often subjected to various diagnostic and surgical procedures. This is the most common pyogenic microorganisms get into the already diseased joint, which leads to festering inside him.
- The ankle is one of the most «loaded» in our body. If it was infection, you should immediately start treatment as abscess at this site most quickly leads to amputation.
- The hip joint suffers, as a rule, already after the affected leg. If this plot were involved in a suppurative process, if you are delayed or the wrong treatment can cause irreversible consequences, leading to disability. In severe untreatable cases, showing prosthesis.
- Infected inflammation of the elbow joint often manifests itself as a cellulitis of the joint capsule, at least – as a purulent synovitis. In the first case affects the deeper soft tissues, mainly the spaces between the muscles.
- Purulent lesion of the shoulder joint can trigger hypothermia, large loads on this site, stress and other factors. A common cause of suppuration in this region is tuberculosis of bones and joints, and sometimes syphilis and gonorrhea.
Symptoms — sharp and painful
At the beginning of this disease are almost always acute.
Appear sharp throbbing intense pain in the affected area.
They occur abruptly, amid a normal state of health. When the load on the affected area of any unpleasant sensations. Often the patient takes a forced situation.
The joint swells, the skin over it is hyperemic. The contours of the joint change.
The body temperature rises, sometimes it can reach 39-40 degrees Celsius. Characterized by sweating, chills. May experience headaches and symptoms of intoxication.
The complexity of the treatment
The treatment of septic arthritis is made when the localization of purulent lesions. Patient assist only facility.
The pus must be removed or give him a free outflow. To this end, the joint is punctured, removed the contents and washed with antiseptic solutions.
The liquid which is removed from the glenoid cavity, were examined for sensitivity to antibiotics. Any drug introduced into the cavity. Impose on the wound aseptic pressure bandage.
The joint should be immobilized if it is on a limb, apply a plaster Longuet or a splint. This procedure is repeated daily until the cavity is not properly cleaned, and the symptoms do not subside.
Without waiting for culture results, antibiotic therapy is prescribed for intramuscular and intravenous injection. To do this, choose one of the drugs: Lincomycin, Gentamycin, Amoxiclav, Ceftriaxone.
During intoxication prescribe disintoxication therapy: intravenously administered glucose, ringer solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution.
After the reduction of inflammation shown massage, ultraviolet irradiation, electrophoresis, laser therapy, therapeutic physical training. Of the essential vitamins, medicines and treatments to strengthen the immune system, a diet rich in proteins.
If the treatment does not effect, surgery is indicated. For this the joint is greatly dissected, washed, drained, impose aseptic bandage.
If all measures prove ineffective, as the disease progresses, in the name of saving the patient’s life, the decision about the removal of the joint. Sometimes you have to amputate the entire limb.
Complications and dangers
The most dangerous of all the complications of septic arthritis sepsis. The disease can lead to ankylosis, that is, to complete immobility of the joint. Can develop arthritis. The limb and the joint is often deformed.
The disease can become chronic and constantly disturb the person, disrupting his quality of life. In the end, the joint may simply collapse.
Now is very effective replacing them with high-quality dentures, but this operation is difficult and costly.
Preventive measures often help to avoid many diseases, and the situation with purulent arthritis is no exception.
To avoid this disease, you need to:
- to protect joints from injury;
- with open lesions of the joints correctly to carry out primary surgical processing of the wound;
- in a timely manner to treat infectious and inflammatory processes in the body;
- to treat dermatitis and different skin rashes in the joints;
- at least once a year to conduct a survey of tuberculosis, syphilis;
- to lead a healthy lifestyle and to only have protected sex;
- eat right, constantly strengthen the immune system;
- sports, watch your weight;
- in the presence of the slightest suspicion of joint involvement to go to the hospital.
Suppurative arthritis is a severe disease that can result in the loss of health and disability. Bring him to both endogenous and exogenous factors. Timely therapeutic measures will help to avoid the negative consequences of this disease and keep health.