Surgery on the hip joint: transplantation and treatment
Hip replacement every year more and more actively applied in modern medicine. Innovative technologies allow us to replace the articular tissue in the region of the hip joint and maintain mobility of the limbs.
A chance to maintain activity and mobility
Conservative treatment even with the use of innovative drugs of new generation not yet in force so effectively to implement the treatment. In modern medicine there are several types of arthroplasty are classified depending on which part of the tissue is replaced and when is surgical treatment.
Can be carried out replacing the entire hip joint or certain parts of it. Transplantation subjected to and the surface of the articular tissue at the hip joint.
Sculpting, resection, bone and cartilage
Transplantation is not omnipotent, but it can help when joints lose their mobility, not help invasive alternative treatment and the person is doomed to a lifetime of disability. Arthroplasty is successfully used not only on the hip joint. This treatment used to alleviate shoulder, knee and other areas. In modern medicine there are several types of such an operation in the hip region: modeling, resection and bone and cartilage.
The name of the first operation completely sounds so: «modeling resection and osteotomy of the metatarsal bones.» This term refers to the various operations, they share a common principle that is surgical treatment. First remove the head first moldy bone-cartilaginous exostosis on the medial and dorsum of the hip joint.
There is another algorithm of operation: the joint space is shortened and also there is surgical treatment to Chevron shortening osteotomy of the first metatarsal bone.
Resection of the hip also combine several types of surgery to prevent ankylosis and ensuring the motor functions of the body. Resection surgery involves removing the person part of the affected joint, or rather, one of its surfaces on the hip joint. In its place, place the graft, representing a range of tissues, where there are those ligaments and fascia, which has a natural hip joint.
Osteochondral operation isolated in a separate group of arthroplasty, to that effect, and the operation Tychinkin.
The risks really are
If the status of the hip is not improving after applied all possible conservative treatment, only then is assigned to surgical intervention. Operations have got a whole list of complications when possible deterioration of health. Often after carried out surgical treatment, there are pneumonia and thrombosis. If the operation has not brought improvement in the functioning of the joint, re-appointed invasive treatment. After complete surgical intervention may open bleeding where the operated hip joint. There is a small, but the probability that the operation will lead to the emergence of infectious diseases due to the infection in the wound, which greatly complicate treatment.
But, as we are assured by medical professionals in such a surgery complications occur quite rarely. In the course of performing the surgical intervention may occur in vessels or nerves located in this region. Sometimes in the course of surgical intervention there is a fracture of the femur.
It is important to know that even if the operation was successful, the risk of complications that affect the hip joint remains and years later. But patients agree to it in the hope that the hip replacement section of the limbs will bring them relief from pain and return of mobility of the limbs. To date, more than real a way to restore the hip joint when the tissues in this region have undergone irreversible changes, does not exist.
Prosthetic hip joints is done in our days with the use of materials which are not oxidized and are well tolerated by the body. This recovery with the use of titanium prostheses is very common. Dentures made from ceramics and steel. Standard dentures consist of cups, legs and head. Cup is the acetabular leg — the femoral components of artificial hip joints. Each component is made from steel or titanium. The Cup of the prosthesis can be made not only from metal but also from polyethylene, the latter has relatively recently become actively used in such operations.
Surgery an important point is the fixation of endoprostheses. Mount artificial hip joints to the bones should be as strong, durable and to give the opportunity to operate the limbs. There are three types of attachment of the graft of the hip joint:
- with cement fixation;
- without cement fixation;
- combined fastening.
If you choose, as will the fixed prosthesis, it takes into account the age of the person changing the hip joint. Cementless fixation is more often used for joint replacements for young people.
Cement fixation and combined variants of fastening of the hip joints to the bones are best suited for people older.
Full and partial arthroplasty
It is quite natural that successful is surgery in which the hip joint is restored and recovered normal functioning of the musculoskeletal system. Replace the hip joint, this does not mean to instantly solve the problem. The reestablishment of the musculoskeletal system occurs within 6-7 weeks after surgery. This period is important because from it depends largely on the success of the treatment.
There are two types of surgery: modern medicine performs a full and private arthroplasty. The first operation is the most complex. Basically used a variant of the classic when done single incision on the outer thigh and hip. The surgery is performed under General, spinal or epidural anesthesia. In certain cases, methods are used, small incisions are performed with special tools on the site, where there is the hip joint.
The type of prosthesis, the surgeon selects individual for patient depending on various criteria.You need to know: all hip joints have their strengths and weaknesses, they must take into account in the selection of dentures. Immediately after surgery, the patient is injected with painkillers. There are two choices of doctors in this case, the drug is administered:
- in the cavity of the hip joint.
At this time the body’s immune system are particularly vulnerable and a risk of a infectious diseases is high. That is why after the surgery and is taking antibiotics.
The next step is to prevent the formation of blood clots in the legs and the hip, which use special drugs that thin the blood and improve its circulation, because it can be delayed after surgery. The most effective solutions for this problem is considered to be of low molecular weight heparin. The hip joint is fixed in a special way, for which various orthopedic devices necessarily used in the postoperative period.
Often for this purpose, compressive boots or stockings. The first differ from the second in that for fixing the hip and legs, boots periodically need to inflate.
Postoperative period and its duration are of particular importance for the successful treatment of humans. A time when there is a restoration of the normal functioning of the limbs, in the medical literature varies. Postoperative period usually lasts for days and is replaced by another no less important process of rehabilitation. The patient after surgery is usually about a week. There are two points of view on how the first day properly conduct rehabilitation of the person. It all depends on the health status of the patient and the effectiveness for hip surgery. Many in medical practice cases when the patients already in the first days after surgery trying to move with the help of medical staff. On average, the return to physical activity after surgery occurs within 3-6 months.
A special program of exercises for hip joints and overall strengthening of the body required. If the patient’s condition does not improve, the duration of his stay in the hospital after the operation, respectively, increases. All this time after surgery, measures are taken for the growth of everyday human activity. In total, the recovery process lasts up to six months, it was during this time completely restored the function of the limbs and hip joint, provided that all the recommendations of doctors are patient.
Walking, swimming, Cycling is not prohibited in the rehabilitation period, promoting a more rapid recovery of hip joints. But heavy and contact sports will have to forget, because they are in rehabilitation and poslerevoljutsionnyj periods is dangerous for the hip joints.
What is the average lifespan of dentures? 10 to 15 years. Definitely need to know: after this time will need to replace the artificial hip joints new designs.