Swelling and knee pain when bending — possible causes, treatment

Why it swells and hurts his knee when bent

Many people periodically suffer from pain in the knees. This is not surprising, because every day we subject our knees to heavy loads.

The biggest risk in this question are athletes.

But the injury may occur and the ordinary person engaged in outdoor activities in carrying out the work related to physical effort.

The knee is the largest and functionally complex joint in our body. At least the knee joint and has a large size, he is quite a vulnerable place from the point of view of its structure. To understand why, let’s briefly describe the anatomy of the knee.

A short course of anatomy

Anatomists the term knee mean knee joint. The knee joint is really the main part of the knee.

But in the formation of the knee as the leg, involved also the muscles of the femur and tibia, mostly tendon.

In forming the knee joint are involved Misaki of the femur, the upper articular surface of the tibia and the patella. The cushioning in the movement contribute to two meniscus: medial and lateral.

Basically, the movement in flexion and extension of the leg at the knee joint occurs between the condyles of the femur and menisci. The knee joint also strengthens a number of ligaments.

Talking about knee pain

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Usually the pain in the knee in flexion and extension is associated with damage to one of its components.

In case of serious lesions of the knee joint may appear swelling and local temperature increase.

Often sore knee, and when bending after injury.

Trauma can be caused by a strong blow to the knee, a blow on a hard object or a fall. Trauma from experiencing pain, there is bruising and swelling.

The swelling is pinching the nerve endings, which leads to a sensation of numbness or tingling in the knee or Shin.

Severe pain in the knee are characteristic for injuries of the ligaments and tendons of the knee joint, meniscus, fractures, dislocations of the knee and patella.

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If the pain occur when you bend

Among the reasons why a really sore knee when bending are the following:

  1. Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease of connective tissue characterized by joint damage and the further development of destructive changes. At the initial stages of knee pain occurs only during movement or bending, but in the future the pain bothers the person, and alone. In the joint there is a swelling and redness. For rheumatoid arthritis the characteristic morning stiffness lasting at least an hour.
  2. Gouty arthritis occurs because of deposits of uric acid salts in the joint and periarticular tissues. It is characterized by sharp, unbearable pain in the knee joint, aggravated by slightest movement, or attempts to change the situation.
  3. Osteoarthritis of the knee (gonarthrosis) is a chronic progressive destructive disease of the knee resulting from various reasons. For osteoarthritis characterized by pain of a mechanical nature, disturbing at first, if the load on the joint. In the implementation of flexion, the pain may spread to the tibia and femur. Palpation is defined soreness in the joint, its sealing and restriction in movement. In the later stages of deformation occurs in the joint, its increase in volume, the joint space narrows. If you do not spend a timely treatment, the person is in disability.
  4. Tendonitis is inflammation of the ligaments of the knee. The most common among athletes. The main symptom is pain arising in the anterior region of the knee and only during exercise.
  5. Bursitis is inflammation of periarticular bags. Most often bursitis develops on the background of injuries, common mechanical injuries and joint infections. The pain occurs in the implementation of actions involving the knee joint. The joint become red, swollen and sometimes greatly increased in volume.
  6. Disease Osgood-Schlatter is osteochondropathy the tibial tuberosity. Usually occurs during adolescence in males who are actively engaged in running sports. The disease is characterized by intense pain in the knee region and lower leg in the implementation of flexion in the knee joint. Normally at rest the pain does not arise.

Sometimes the pain in the knee joint may occur due to inflammation of the sciatic nerve or if the infringement of the subcutaneous branches of the nerves, such as when wearing high narrow boots.

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Cause pain when bending can be divided Legg – a disease in which there is a necrosis of the bone site and its rejection in the joint space.

For this disease characterized by pain is constant, aching, localized in the front or prednimustine surface of the knee joint.

Following acute damage can also cause pain:

  • injury to the meniscus;
  • rupture of ligaments and tendons;
  • tear tibial ligament;
  • fracture of the upper part of the tibia, the lower part of the femur, of the patella;
  • dislocation of the patella;
  • dislocation of the knee.

What types of pain exist

There are several different types of pain in the knee joint:

  1. Sudden pain is typical for fresh injuries unit joint with damage to the menisci, as well as for the introduction of elements of bone in soft tissue.
  2. Aching occurs in the case of chronic processes in the joint: inflammation, early stages of arthritis or vascular disorders.
  3. Firing characteristic of the inflammatory process involving nerve endings.
  4. A strong case in case of infringement of the nerve block damaged meniscus and other acute injuries.
  5. A constant characteristic of spazmirovannah nearby muscles, fibrosis of the capsule, reactive synoviitis and neuropathies.
  6. Throbbing occurs during acute inflammatory processes of the soft tissues, for the early stages of rheumatoid arthritis and vascular disorders.
  7. Cutting indicates a meniscus tear and the connection unit or on a pinched nerve.
  8. Pulling characteristic of various stages of development of most pathologies.
  9. Pain below the knee occurs during injuries of menisci, tendons and ligaments, patella fractures and delamination of the periosteum.
  10. Pain above knee indicates osteoarthritis, back problems and vascular disorders.
  11. Spreading the pain of rheumatoid arthritis.

Diagnostic methods

The most common method of diagnosis is radiography. It is usually performed in two projections: frontal and lateral.

Usually do simultaneously direct both the knee joints for comparison. In the lateral projection to evaluate the function of the joint is at maximum extension to assess the correlation axis of the femur and tibia.

Often doctors perform diagnostic puncture of the joint, joint fluid obtained is sent to the laboratory for testing.

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Also to confirm the diagnosis, prescribe such instrumental methods of investigation:

  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • ultrasonography;
  • radionuclide diagnostics;
  • arthroscopy;
  • thermography.

First aid

In the case of pain in the knee, you must apply ice to the joint. Compress to keep no longer than 20 minutes.

You can try to remove the pain syndrome such drugs as aspirin, acetaminophen, naproxen, deksalgin.

For chronic pain, you can wear a special orthotic insole, which helps to redistribute your weight. But still, it is better to consult a doctor for diagnosis of the disease in the early stages.

What treatment is appointed

Mandatory component of the treatment if very sore knee when bending is to reduce the load on the joint.

During periods of exacerbation the patient shows a strict bed rest. Shoes need to wear soft and comfortable.

Goals of conservative treatment are:

  • the improvement of the overall functional activity of the affected leg;
  • reduction in pain;
  • a slowing of the progression.

Conservative treatment includes the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, cartilage protectors for the restoration of elasticity of cartilage and its mechanical integrity, local treatment.

Local treatment by application of gels, ointments, sprays, and compresses.

Conservative treatment is only effective in the early stages of the disease. With late diagnosis it is necessary to resort to surgical intervention.

This files most often perform arthroscopic surgery. In advanced cases spend arthroplasty.

Complications

If long-term treatment of the disease, the possible appearance of the constant unbearable pain, as a consequence of a significant deterioration in the quality of life, disability and loss of earning capacity.

In order not to get yourself in this condition and surgical treatment, it is necessary to consult qualified specialist.