Symptoms and signs of fracture of the thumb: treatment and rehabilitation after injury
How to accurately determine the fracture of finger and make treatment of an injury of the most effective
Fingers are our main assistants to perform movements in everyday life and at work.
Left without treatment or treated improperly broken finger, is able to bring a lot of inconvenience to the owner.
Because people use the fingers in all areas of their life, to describe all situations in which he can hurt them – a very long lesson.
Anatomy and function of the
The fingers are placed on the extremities and can be used to perform tactile and manipulative functions. The fingers consist of short tubular bones connected by tendons. On the bones located the muscles for mobility, as well as small and medium-sized vessels.
Classification of fractures and their characteristics
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Fractures are divided into traumatic and pathological.
Traumatic fracture — bone damage due to a finger injury. Pathological fracture is a bone fracture, altered pathological process (usually due to any disease). Also, fractures are types of bone injury in which disrupted the integrity of its structure.
It can be cracked, cracked and cracking:
- the fracture can be considered a fracture plane of the fracture which affects less than half of the diameter of the tubular bone;
- when the fracture plane of the fracture affects more than half the diameter of the bone, while keeping the part intact bone tissue;
- when cracking the bone in all directions is covered with numerous cracks. They usually occur when a direct massive impact.
The nature of fracture fractures are divided as follows:
Fractures of the fingers for localization divided into extra-articular and intra-articular. Extra-articular fractures are localized over the bone. And intra-articular fractures usually accompanied by dorsal dislocation or subluxation.
Let us characterize in more detail each of the types of fractures:
- when fracture appear detached small fragments. When such a fracture necessarily surgical intervention with removal of debris and Podolsk restoration of the bone structure;
- the longitudinal fracture line approximately parallel to the axis of the bone;
- when helical fractures bone fragments are rotated, the bone fragments are in a rotated state about its natural position;
- transverse fractures differ conventionally perpendicular to the line of the fracture about the longitudinal axis of the bone;
- oblique fractures of different available plane of the fracture, which runs at an acute angle about the longitudinal axis of the bone.
The fractures are open (persichetti and vtorichnaya) and closed (incomplete and complete).
In contrast to the closed, an open fracture may be bacterial contaminated. Thus, the fracture is open, closed is different from bacterial contamination.
Closed fracture the bone is in full or partial violation of the integrity of bone tissue, in which no violation of the skin in the area of the fracture.
Offset and fragments, their types
As closed fractures, and open are with displacement of fragments. Offsets are an integral part fractures, but are insignificant.
The offset is:
- in length;
Fragments are divided into two groups:
- primary — under the impact of traumatic force;
- secondary — arise from the interaction of traction of the muscles and bone fragments.
The specific fracture finger
A significant difference in the fracture of one or another of the fingers is not observed. The most common injury is a broken thumb. If it is injury pain difficult to distinguish a fracture from injury. There are two types of such injury:
- a fracture near the base of the finger;
- fracture near the ulnar side of the finger.
Fractures of the little finger, index and middle fingers of different features. But the fracture of the ring finger of the hand during the period of rehabilitation should be to do specific exercises to further make full use of your finger, as this finger carries a functional load like the others.
Signs and symptoms of a fracture
It is difficult to distinguish a fracture from an injury of a finger.
The characteristics of the fracture:
- sharp or aching pain in the injured part of the limb, aggravated by palpation, or exertion;
- extending the swelling or swelling with damage to all of the damaged finger and the hand;
- limited mobility – sharp pain when moving the injured limb, the inability to full extension of the finger or hand grip into a fist;
- hemorrhage at the fracture site, hemorrhage under the nail plate;
- unusual mobility of the finger in the site of a possible fracture;
- when the user’s finger felt the friction and crunch;
- deformation of the finger is a sure sign of a closed fracture.
Symptoms characteristic of the injury:
- bleeding under the skin;
- limited movement;
- in open fractures there is often bleeding and traumatic shock.
Diagnostic techniques in trauma
To diagnose a fracture of the phalanx of finger, knowing all its characteristics, is not difficult. But symptoms such as swelling, bruising and lividity of the external skin can is not a fracture, but a trivial injury.
But such symptoms as severe pain, shortening of the phalanges, the bones crunching would suggest that You have indeed broken. However, it is obligatory to visit a doctor and do an x-ray.
The first thing to do when rendering the victim first aid in case of fracture of a finger on the hand to immobilize the injured finger. To do this, use the bus. With success you can use any objects at hand: Popsicle sticks, a pen, a twig of a tree, well as to strengthen tires on the finger of the victim – a bandage or piece of fabric.
To reduce the pain on the injured limb you should attach a piece of ice or some other cold object.
The type of fracture and its treatment
Treatment fracture finger offset should begin with a mapping of fragments in the future, this will help to restore finger function, produce reposition the finger under the effect of local anesthesia. In the future, a plaster bandage, capturing the entire first finger. The overlay is controlled by the x-ray.
Fragments tend to record needles for three weeks. After this period, the spokes removed, but the patient walks with a plaster cast up to five weeks.
When a fracture of the phalanx of the thumb without displacement treatment is applied to the injured finger bus Böhler or Palmar plaster tape. The average patient takes her for a month. In such injuries, the patients wear a cast for four to six weeks.
In the case of closed injury of the tendon on the finger, to achieve fracture Union and only after that make the plastic broken tendon. Terms of treatment, in this case, stretched for two or three months.
Rehabilitation after injury
Recommended exercises to develop finger:
- the patient must shift the fingers of a grain of rice from one Cup to another. In this case, you should try to take as many beans, not spilling them;
- the exercise is performed in four poses: hand pressed to the body and bent at the elbow, the arm is extended forward, upward and sideways. In each position 10 times compress the expander;
- the patient sits with his hand on the table. One of palangov fingers raise up as high as possible without lifting the palm from the table. The fingers alternate;
- on the finger wearing the Longuet limiting movement between the third and second phalanges. Performs bending, only the first phalanx;
- the patient fingers squeezes a piece of clay, with middle and first phalanges are straight and the bending occurs in the metacarpophalangeal joints.
- the patient rolls brush the clay to form a sausage. The roll on the Palmar surface should be uniform, and the fingers should be pererisovyvali. Palm needs to have a convex shape;
- forearm and the patient is lifted up, elbow on the table. Thumb alternately touch all the fingers, and try to make the letter «O». Do the exercise for 5-10 repetitions.
Prevention of fractures
As prophylaxis it is recommended to avoid any potential injuries, the performance of any technical work associated with the risk of injuries to fingers, special protective means.
Many of you will be surprised, but the food in the healing process for any injured extremity plays a very important role.
After all, what would a bone have grown together, our body the necessary vitamins, minerals and of course calcium. In particular you should pay attention to products with a high content of zinc, manganese, magnesium, and folic acid.
Zinc promotes the absorption of calcium. Calcium works well in combination with magnesium, it can be found in bananas, green vegetables, almonds and dairy products. And of course we must not forget about the beans, cabbage, beets, chicken meat and sunflower seeds, because they contained folic acid helps to form collagen bones cawing.
Don’t forget about the basic rules of the use of different tools and basic precaution.
If the trouble with you happens, don’t waste your time and make every effort for effective treatment and rehabilitation in the future.
Try not to drink alcohol during the healing phase of your finger, eliminate caffeine, tea and chocolate. And remember: toes in humans, at least 20, but the value is each of them.