Symptoms of a sprained ankle. First aid and treatment of injuries
First aid and treatment for sprained ankle
The ankle of any human being is a special unit consisting of two ankles, the talus and the ligaments and tendons. The term ankle refers to the distal end of the fibula and tibia.
A large part of the loads during everyday movements, it is the joint, which leads to a variety of trauma this section of the limbs, ranging from sprains to complex fractures. And often a person has a sprained ankle that is out of its normal location forming the ankle bones.
Trauma occurs when an incorrect statement of the foot, and that can happen when jumping, while running, while wearing poorly chosen shoes, very often the dislocation is fixed at the young girls who prefer to wear shoes with high and uncomfortable heels.
Symptoms and signs of dislocation
The main and very first symptom of a sprained ankle is a pain, it can be as absolutely minor as well intense, does not allow to step on the injured limb.
After a few minutes or hours from the time the injury develops deformity of the ankle due to the escape of the bone from its location and swelling, and you may also experience an extensive hematoma due to rupture of small capillaries. To determine the degree of dislocation of the trauma takes into account the nature of the injury, visible changes in the joint, the severity of symptoms.
To confirm the preliminary diagnosis requires radiography of the ankle joint.
Symptoms according to the degree of injury
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- A slight degree of dislocation of the ankle is exposed in the case that the impact of the injury only affects the ligaments. At the time of failure location of joints they just stretched and there is slight pain, not sharply expressed deformation and discomfort when walking.
- The average degree of the sprain – partial tearing of ligaments. The patient complains of severe pain, when viewed from an ankle strain, the tumor may go down to the foot, movement is difficult and takes a lot of pain.
- Severe grade is characterized by complete rupture of the tendons, which leads to the release of the bones of the joint. During the inspection revealed significant hematoma or swelling that spreads to the top and to the bottom from the ankle joint. The pain is intense, brings anxiety at rest and increases sharply during movement. The injured person can not do flexion and extension of the leg, walking is not possible. Severe dislocation can be determined at the time not a good inversion of the foot, in such cases, well-heard kind of a click, indicating the displacement of bone.
Sharp pain, swelling and soreness when moving can make a person assume that he had a fracture. Really between these two injuries have similarities in symptoms and the surgeon to confirm the diagnosis must always send your patient to the. But there are specific clinical and morphological signs that will almost always correct to put the preliminary diagnosis.
The difference of dislocation from a fracture
- Pain with dislocation of the damaged area appears almost immediately at the time of injury. The fracture, though it is considered the most severe bone deformities, but leads to the development of pain after only a few minutes. The thing is that when you fracture a person enters a state of shock and the allocation of the adrenaline partially blocks pain receptors.
- With dislocation of the ankle is determined by limitation of movement at the fracture is present on the contrary abnormal mobility. In some cases, a patient with a fracture of the ankle joint can move independently for several hours, but to do so is strictly prohibited.
- Swelling when the dislocation begins to appear several hours later and can spread to the whole foot, including the plantar area. At the turn of the swelling most often occurs on the second day and recorded only at the site of injury.
- In severe dislocation and fracture under the skin visible protruding part of the bone. If they palpation a sharp pain, it is likely to fracture.
- One of the distinctive signs of fracture and dislocation include a shortening of the limb. When you fracture a bone is deformed, is shifted off to the side, all this leads to a visible shortening of the leg.
Especially dangerous fracture is open, but it can determine without difficulty any man – in the wound on the leg types will be part of the divided bone.
From the correctly rendered first aid in case of sprained ankle in the first hours after trauma depends not only on your General wellbeing, but also the degree of pathological changes in the joint in the future.
Doctors – traumatologists developed certain criteria first aid for sprains, use these guidelines surrounding the injured man’s people.
The primary measures that need to be taken if you suspect a dislocation are as follows:
- Cold. Applied to ankle joint ice pack reduces pain and prevents swelling spread. As a compress can be used not only ice but any frozen foods, chilled in the refrigerator water. Should the selected tool wrapped in cloth and applied to the source of the pain, even better if the drumstick is wrapped a cold compress around the circle. Cold is applied immediately after the injury. Keep the ice on your calf no more than 20 minutes, and then make the hour break, it is necessary to prevent strong cooling of the tissues.
- Fixation. Damaged limbs need to provide full rest, this will prevent further deformation of the joint. On the limb it is necessary to impose elastic bandage, providing immobility of the ankle joint and foot. The bandage should not be too tight, as this will lead to disruption of blood circulation. With proper bandaging sensitivity on the foot should be maintained.
- The leg should be given a slightly elevated position, resting on the joint of the cushion of soft improvised pillows, folded clothes.
- In case of severe pain before turning to the doctor you need pills to drink – Analginum, Baralgin.
- For movement you need to use the crutches to step on the soles are strictly prohibited.
- In severe pain and the impossibility of transporting need to call an ambulance.
Sometimes it happens that a person wanting to alleviate their condition and not having the necessary medical knowledge, assistance causes more damage.
Therefore, it is necessary to consider that some of the manipulation and the types of care for sprained ankle to produce highly undesirable.
What not to do when you sprain
- To reduce a dislocation of their own. Ignorance of the anatomy of the ankle joint lead to rupture of the small capillaries and damage to nearby nerves.
- Not to try to tightly wrap the limb.
- After injury, some try to relieve the pain by drinking alcohol, do not do this. It is possible that the repositioning of the ankle the doctor will need to give General anesthesia, and the administration of fluids and food will adversely affect the patient’s condition and significantly postpone the time of surgical intervention.
Treatment of sprained ankle is not only in first aid. In order to keep the bones in normal anatomical location, and ligaments quickly and without complications took its normal form, the required specific therapy.
- Reduction is the main method of treatment for severe degrees of subluxation. Surgical intervention, in the absence of contraindications, is performed after giving General anesthesia.
- After reposition of the joint overlaps the retaining bandage or a plaster Longuet for a period of approximately 10 days to three weeks.
- Anti-inflammatory therapy is necessary to ease pain and reduce inflammation. Use drugs NSAIDs.
- Ointments – analgesic and anti-inflammatory creams are also one means of reducing the swelling and pain.
- Physiotherapy treatments are prescribed after removing the splint. Their course application allows you to quickly restore mobility in the injured joint.
- Homeopathic medicines are rarely appointed in official medicine. If you decide to use them, it is necessary to choose the means of improving blood circulation, relieving inflammation and pain.
- In the period of pain you can use painkillers from different groups.
- Fast regeneration of injured tissues is achieved by taking vitamins and biogenic stimulators.
The decision about how to treat a sprained ankle should take doctor. Self-treatment is dangerous to the health and fraught with disabilities!
Traditional methods in the treatment of ankle injuries
About three days the injured joint it is recommended to warm up. The easiest way to do that with compresses of infusions of various anti-inflammatory herbs.
During a night stay is necessary to give the limb an elevated position, this reduces swelling and therefore relieves pain.
The features of the dislocations in children
Sprains ankle in children under 5 years recorded relatively rarely compared to older children.
This is explained by anatomical features elastic muscular – ligamentous apparatus and small weight of the child. At the same time the baby, compared with adults, while injury faster formed degenerative changes.
After a few days muscle tissue begins to be replaced by tendon, reduction of dislocation occurs with difficulty, and the full treatment of the joint will occur for a long time. Therefore, any leg injury of a child should be evaluated by a qualified technician immediately.
To prevent ankle sprain in most cases is everyone, to do this:
- Wear comfortable shoes, selected size. This is especially true of people actively involved in sports.
- Necessary to carry out strengthening exercises for the muscles of the ankle.
- Adults need to take special supplements that strengthen muscle and bone.
- Great weight is also one of the causes of dislocations. Therefore, the reduction of body weight is one of the measures for the prevention of injury to the lower extremities.
A sprained ankle can become a recurring injury and the cause of this is often undertreated damage.