Synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, disfraz and other types of joints joints and bones
Varieties of bone joints and their diseases
Syndesmology — section of anatomy that studies the bones, as well as their varieties. There are two main types of bone joints: discontinuous (diachrony) and continuous (synarthrosis).
Discontinuous diarthrosis is a joint consisting of three elements:
- The surface of the joints. This bone areas that are covered by articular cartilage. Their shape can be flat, but most often on one bone is a fossa, and the second – head. Surface sent vitreous cartilage, the purpose of smoothing roughness and representa. Thanks pruinosity cartilage is the relief of tremors and shocks during movement.
- Articular cavity. This slit space surrounded by the synovial membrane and surfaces of the clutch bone. Inside the cavity contains the articular exudate. The size and shape of a slit of clearance will be determined on the basis of the attachment of the capsule and the magnitude of the surfaces of the bone sections.
- The joint capsule. Has the form of a sealed bag, which is located around the slotted space of the joint. The capsule is formed from internal and external membrane (fibrous and synovial). The outer layer consists of double-layer fabric tie, which is placed in the blood vessels. The fibrous membrane can be thin (movable joints) and thickened (in immobile joints). The inner membrane is located inside the joint cavity with the capture of intra-articular ligaments and bones.
In addition to all the above the main components of the joints they also present additional elements: sesamoid bones, intra-capsular ligaments, the intra-articular disk and glenoid lip.
Synarthrosis are divided into three types, based on the structure of the connecting tissue:
- A fibrous joint. Formed of interosseous sutures and membranes, vkladyvanii and fontanelles. With the help of the interosseous membranes are connected to all the adjacent bones (tibia and forearm). Interosseous sutures are a form of syndesmosis and are found only in the skull.
- Bone plexus (synostosis). It is the most dense form of joints, which is deprived of a flexible and cushioning properties. An example of a synostosis in adults is the articulation between the body of the sphenoid and occipital bones, or between the sections of the lower jaw.
- Joint cartilage (synchondroses). Have the tangles of fibrous and hyaline cartilage. Hyaline cartilage is more elastic but less durable. It contributes to the fusion of epiphysis and metaphysis of tubular bones. The main function of synchondrosis is cushioning under strong pressure on the bone.
Causes and symptoms of osteoarthritis in joints
One of the main causes of arthritis is heredity. If one of the parents suffering from this disease, it is likely she will have children. Have an important value and excessive exercise that are most characteristic of longshoremen, construction workers and so on osteoarthritis of the joints may occur due to uneven loads on joints, which are subjected to people constantly performing sedentary or standing work.
Osteoarthritis joints may develop on the background of endocrine diseases like diabetes or obesity. Other causes include:
- abnormal anatomy of the musculoskeletal system;
- violation of metabolic processes in the body;
- the development of inflammatory processes;
- deterioration of the cartilage;
- bruises, injuries and sprains.
The first symptom of osteoarthritis is the occurrence of pain in loads on the joints. When you go to rest, the pain disappears. Another symptom of the disease –
it’s a snap. It occurs due to the reduced softness of the rotation of the bones in the joint, causing them to RUB against each other. Crunch when osteoarthritis has a «dry» sound. With the progression of the disease, the sound becomes more pronounced.
A characteristic feature is the reduction of mobility in the joints of the bones. This is due to spazmirovannah muscles, causing the joint space disappears. On the backdrop of the signs of the deformation of the joint. This symptom occurs because of the proliferation of osteophytes on the surface of the bone.
Diagnosis and treatment
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Diagnosis is made on the background of x-ray pictures and analyses of clinical manifestations. First of all, take pictures of the diseased joint, and signs of dystrophic changes in the area of the articular cartilage develops the overall clinical picture, with the subsequent establishment of the diagnosis.
Sometimes one is not enough diagnostic radiology. In this case, are MRI and CT scan of the damaged joint for studying bone structures.
Drug treatment of arthrosis of joints is carried out using tablets, ointments, gels and injections. The drugs aimed at the elimination of inflammatory processes, improving hemodynamics, and anesthesia.
Another method of treatment is physical therapy. With its help relieve pain and inflammation. On joints affected by electromagnetic waves, sound waves and laser. In physical therapy the course includes the application of compresses made of natural materials (bischofite, medical bile, etc.). In addition, appointed physiotherapy, which improves the condition of ligaments and increased mobility of the bones.
Prevention is in sticking to simple rules:
- compliance with the balanced motor mode;
- avoidance of injury to the joints;
- the adherence of the day;
- the fight against excess weight;
- the use of chondroprotectors;
- wearing shoes with a comfortable heel;
- avoidance of hypothermia joints;
Compliance with these rules protects the joints, and in case of arthritis slows down the development of pathological processes in them.