Tendons brushes: anatomical features of inflammation, damage and stretching

Inflammation of the tendon of the brush is very common among people. It is characterized by soreness and stiffness in the joint. Disease associated with inflammation of tendons is called tendonitis.


Anatomical features of the tendons of the brush

Сухожилия кисти: анатомические особенности, воспаления, повреждения и растяженияWhat is a tendon? This muscle, which has higher density and lack of elasticity. Thanks to the tendons, muscles are attached to bone. If the integrity of the tendon is disturbed, it drops any function.

To ensure movement of the fingers requires the tendons of the flexors and extensors of the fingers. Groups of flexors of fingers placed on the palm and extensor — on the back of the fingers. The damaging of tendons of flexors of fingers hard to cure.

Each finger has 2 tendons of flexor. One is superficial, the other in the deeper layers of the muscles. Deep is attached to the nail phalanges. He is responsible for the flexion of the finger. The superficial flexor attaches to the middle phalanx. It has 2 legs.

Between 2 legs is a deep flexor. Damage to the tendons of the flexors of the fingers leads to tightening of the tendon end, located proximally. Therefore, to find the ends of the rupture of the tendon is very difficult.

If damage to the extensor, the tendon is practically undisturbed. This is a huge plus during a surgical operation. This is the anatomy of the tendons.


The etiology of tendonitis: causes and symptoms

There are several reasons for the development of inflammatory processes of the tendon of the brush:

Big load on the articular surface for a long time. As a result of prolonged loading suffer greatly the places where muscles attached. In this regard, it is noted, the spread of this disease among people involved in sports and construction activities.Сухожилия кисти: анатомические особенности, воспаления, повреждения и растяжения

  • Traumatic lesions of joints. Injury could occur one or more times.
  • Bacterial infection of man.
  • Rheumatic joint tissue.
  • Diseases of the spine.
  • Violation of the anatomical structure in the joint. Example: shortening of the limbs.
  • Diseases of the endocrine system.
  • Diseases of the immune system.
  • Joint dysplasia. Regardless of whether it is congenital or acquired.
  • Neuropathy. It causes muscle spasm.
  • The inflammatory response from the body when tendinite is a proper response to irritation.

    The symptoms depend on what area was injured tendons. It is important that the degree of contamination of the wound surface and the number of the affected tissues. If the wound is clean and smooth (such wounds are usually applied by a sharp instrument), no damage to major blood vessels, the doctor makes a primary suture on the tendon. Healing for damaged flexor tendons depends on early requests for assistance. Then there is a high probability that the function of the tendon will be restored. The best time for surgical intervention as the first 6 hours after injury of the tendons of the flexors or extensors. But primary closure can be performed during the first 24 hours.

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    The disease manifests with the following symptoms:

  • Pain at the site of the lesion. The pain is persistent and lasting. It can appear suddenly or develop gradually. When polerowanie the affected wrist (or other extremities) can be used to detect the boundaries of the inflammatory process.
  • Swelling of the affected body part. Since the tissues the inflammatory response, it begins to differentiate transudate and exudate. In this regard, the affected body part varies in size and shape.
  • The deterioration of the affected limb. Formed a contracture of the joint, its mobility is impaired. The articular cavity becomes filled with fluid. The tendon hardens and shrinks. As a result, the limb is incapable of extension, bending, rotation. There can be total stillness (also called ankylosis).
  • Crepitus when moving the joint. It can hear both the patient and the doctor.
  • Hyperemia of the surrounding tissue.
  • The rise in body temperature.

  • Classification of tendinitis: principal

    Inflammation may involve any limb and arm and a leg. There are places in which tendonitis is most common. The localization of the disease gives the disease a new symptoms and features. Therapeutic measures directly depend on the localization of the inflammatory focus.

  • Lateral tendonitis. Affects the muscles responsible for straightening the wrist. The disease is widespread among athletes. Lateral tendonitis starts with the experience of the weakening of the strength in the hand. Then attaches a violation of the normal functions. An inflammatory lesion is localized on the outside of the elbow. Pain spread to the shoulder and forearm.
  • Medial tendonitis. It affects the tendons the flexors of the forearm. Ill mostly people interested in sports activities. The pain is localized in the inner side of the elbow.
  • Inflammation covering the Achilles tendon and the posterior tibial muscle. When inflammation in the Achilles tendon severe soreness if you wish to stand on tiptoe. If the Achilles tendon is torn, the person is unable to stand on tiptoe. Tendonitis of the Achilles tendon occurs in those who like to walk in high heels, athletes, athletes or people involved in sports jumping. Complication of the disease is the formation of osteophytes. They hinder walking and cause severe pain. Tendonitis back b/W muscles is a very common disease. It can cause flat feet. Symptoms: the appearance of pain when Jogging and lifting heavy objects.
  • Сухожилия кисти: анатомические особенности, воспаления, повреждения и растяжения

    The anatomical structure of the hands

    Tendonitis of the shoulder joints. Lesions of the tendons of the shoulder joint appears due to rupture of the muscular capsule. The reason for the gap is an external trauma or impact to the bones of the shoulder joint. The formation of tendonitis supraspinatus muscle. If it is damaged, the tendons start to shrink and tear. The range of motion in the joint is not violated. Restriction of movement can cause: capsulitis, synovitis, arthritis. Rupture of tendons of the shoulder joint requires immediate medical intervention.

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  • Tendonitis of the tendons of the wrist. The disease mainly seen in people who play piano and programmers. Diagnosis of this kind of tendonitis is to perform orthopedic tests. Example test tasks: to connect the pinky, thumb and forefinger. When tendinite — in the joint of the wrist will appear a strong pain. In flexion-extension of the kulaks affected arm will lag behind. When tendinite wrist of the person suffers from the inability to perform familiar actions (for example, to keep the subject in hand).
  • There are other varieties of tendinitis, but they are rare:

    • tendonitis of the hip joints;
    • tendonitis of the knee.


    Diagnostic measures and treatment

    Tendonitis, or inflammation of the tendon can be diagnosed using the following methods:

  • Inspection. Examining the patient the specialist can detect swelling and asymmetry in the region of the tendon. The physician is able to characterize pain, impaired mobility in the joint, to identify the cause of the emerging pain (it can be as a result of active or passive movements).
  • Сухожилия кисти: анатомические особенности, воспаления, повреждения и растяженияThe collection of tests. The tests are informative only in the presence of an infectious process in the organism of bacterial etiology or development of the rheumatoid process.
  • An x-ray. Radiography is recommended in the presence of all of the above symptoms.
  • CT scan or MRI. These methods of research are recommended for implementation getdiagnostic diseases.
  • Ultrasound. The survey is informative if the tendon is changing structure.
  • Orthopedic special tests to determine the location of the inflammation.
  • The symptoms resemble tendinitis such diseases as sprains, tendons. Timely begun treatment events of the patient’s condition improved significantly after 3 days. The final recovery can be expected in 1-1.5 months.

    The prognosis is favorable. Complications are rare. Therapeutic measures consist of conservative treatments. To surgical methods resorted to only in extreme cases.


    Tendon injuries

    Damage to the tendons, located on the brush — it is an injury that occurs as a result of open or closed hand injuries. The most common degloving injury of hand result:

    • incised wounds;
    • penetration of the hand moving mechanisms;
    • etc.

    Damage to the tendons of the extensor brush is much rarer. The leading goal of surgeons for any damage to the tendons of the brush is the reestablishment of the fingers on the hand. To see a specialist you need within 24 hours. It is desirable that the wound was clean. If the wound is very dirty or the patient is not addressed in time for help, the seam on the tendon is applied after a certain period of time.

    Сухожилия кисти: анатомические особенности, воспаления, повреждения и растяженияSurgery aimed at restoring the functioning of fingers, is considered very serious. Surgical intervention is the application of microsurgical techniques. The operation is performed «under the wires». Doctors try to minimize traumatic damage to surrounding tissue. The analgesia produced locally. General anesthesia is undesirable, as the surgeon asks the patient to compress, decompress fingers. It will be necessary for control of correctness of connections of the tendons of the flexor and extensor muscles. After the surgery, the doctor needs to fix the operated limb by using plaster splints.

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    If the patient’s wound multiplied nature, abundant contamination of the wound surface, the running and seek medical help, the doctor makes a delayed secondary suture on the tendon.

    The types of injuries of the tendons of the brush:

  • Trauma of the tendons of the flexor muscles, lying in the deeper layers. The wound is about the nail phalanx. A person is not able to bend the joint which is located between the bed of the nail and middle phalanx.
  • The trauma of the flexor tendons underlying surface. Occur in Association with trauma to the palm of the hand and lower third of the forearm. The patient is unable to bend the joint, which is located between the middle and the main phalanx of the fingers.
  • The defeat of both flexor tendons(deep and superficial). A person is not able to bend the joint in the proximal and distal segments.
  • The defeat of the tendons of the extensors. Tendon finishing sew or put a plaster Longuet for 6 weeks.

  • Stretching: types and methods of treatment

    In addition to the breaks, can be observed and the stretching of the tendons. Sprain there are 3 stages:

    • Stage 1 — occurs in the tendons of micronation;
    • Stage 2 — tension is replaced by a partial tear of the tendons;
    • Stage 3 — rupture of the ligaments.

    Stretching of the ligaments involves first aid:

  • Immobilization of the limb. Can be used for this purpose, use a bandage, handkerchief, scarf etc.
  • Stretching of the ligaments requires the imposition on the injury of cold compress.
  • Transportation to the hospital.
  • At the hospital the doctor examines the patient. If the sprain is severe, then the person remains in the hospital.
  • A sprain is treated by 2 ways:

    • surgery;
    • gypsum Longuet.

    At 1 and 2 stage stretching successfully treated at home.