Tenosynovitis of the foot: causes, symptoms, and current treatment

Symptoms and effective treatment of tenosynovitis of the foot

To the development of tenosynovitis of the foot lead to a variety of factors – most often the reason lies in the transmission or receipt of microtrauma of the tendon.

The effects of this disease can be quite serious.

Therefore, the appearance of the slightest symptoms of pathology should immediately contact the doctor.

What is the pathology?

This term is commonly understood as the pathological process of degenerative and inflammatory nature, which is localized on the inner membrane of the vagina of the tendon.

This pathology falls into the category of professional or sporting diseases, because its occurrence is most often associated with the peculiarities of the activity.

This process is typical for those who are according to his service, forced to make the same type of footwork.

In addition to the fibrous vagina, pathology of the also affect the surrounding tissue. This is because all the parts of this mechanism closely interact with each other.

The causes of the disease

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To the development of tenosynovitis of the tendons of the foot usually caused by such factors:

  • uniform loads of high intensity that falls on the foot or lower leg;
  • infectious lesions of nearby organs;
  • the development of rheumatoid arthritis;
  • lupus erythematosus;
  • problems in metabolic processes;
  • stretching and ruptures of ligaments;
  • fractures;
  • of traumatic injury.

Classification of the disease

In medicine there are several classification features of tenosynovitis foot:

  • depending on the nature of the appearance – aseptic and septic;
  • depending on the flow – acute and chronic;
  • depending on the composition of the inflammatory fluid is purulent, serous, fibrinous, hemorrhagic.

Serous fluid comprises a translucent fluid with a high amount of protein – about 2-3 %. In hemorrhagic fluid also contains red blood cells and other blood components.

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To fibrinous fluid characterized by the high content of blood proteins that form the basis of blood clots. These include fibrin and fibrinogen. Under purulent exudate mean turbid liquid tight structure, in which a protein in the amount of 6-8.

In addition, it has a lot of dead tissue cells and various types of leukocytes.

Depending on the pathogenetic changes in the synovial membrane – chronic stenosing, primary and exudative serous form.

Symptoms of the disease

Tenosynovitis of the foot can occur in acute or chronic form, and depending on this, different symptoms of the disease. Thus, an acute disease is characterized by such manifestations:

  • severe swelling of the synovial membrane;
  • disorder of mobility;
  • the appearance of painful swelling in the region of the tendon sheath;
  • rush of blood;
  • the crunch when driving;
  • the contracture.

The appearance of the inflammatory process of purulent the nature occurs chills, increased body temperature and also inflamed lymph nodes and surrounding vessels.

A chronic form of tenosynovitis is usually associated with professional activity of the person and is characterized by such manifestations:

  • pain that occur during active movements;
  • reduction of joint mobility;
  • the emergence of a crunching or clicking while driving.

How to organize the treatment of the disease

To the treatment of tenosynovitis of the foot was the most effective, it is necessary to conduct a detailed examination. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical picture.

With the development of acute inflammation purulent character in the blood revealed increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukocytes, and the increase of band neutrophils.

To discover the causative agent and define its sensitivity to antibiotics, bacteriological analysis is performed pus.

To exclude other processes is assigned to the x-ray. However, to confirm the diagnosis does not succeed, because the study shows only an increase in soft tissue volume.

The choice of tactics of therapy immediate influence of the form of the disease. Thus, in the acute period it is necessary to provide an elevated position of the limb.

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In addition, it is required to immobilize – this achieved with a plaster splint or elastic bandage.

To cope with the non-infectious process, demonstrates the use of antibiotics and medicines to strengthen the immune system.

In the acute form of aseptic tenosynovitis used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – the doctor may prescribe indomethacin or phenylbutazone. If the disease is tuberculosis of the nature of the use of anti-tuberculosis drugs – streptomycin or ftivazid.

After the acute inflammatory process is stopped, the patient is prescribed physiotherapy and physiotherapy.

These include:

  • electrophoresis with hydrocortisone and novocaine;
  • ultraviolet rays;
  • ultrasound;
  • UHF;
  • microwave treatment.

If the patient has an acute purulent pathology of nature is an immediate opening and drainage of the tendon sheath. The doctor prescribes antibiotics, given the sensitivity of the pathogen.

With the development of the chronic form of the disease is necessary to use all the methods of physiotherapy.

May also be assigned:

  • paraffin baths;
  • ozokerite;
  • physiotherapy;
  • massage;
  • electrophoresis with lydasum.

The person with this disease may be prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In the focus of inflammation is administered glucocorticosteroid drugs metipred, dexason, hydrocortisone.

If a person has a place krepitiruyuschie tenosynovitis, which is difficult to treat, can be used radiotherapy.

Inflammatory process that was the result of rheumatic disease, use basic anti-inflammatory remedies. Also shows the use of electrophoresis and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hydrocortisone.

Sometimes it is not possible to do without surgery. Direct indications for surgery are constrictive and long flowing forms of disorders that are not amenable to conservative treatment methods.

In this case, the tendon sheath is removed, and then sew the subcutaneous tissue with the skin. A couple of weeks fix the foot – for this purpose, plaster is applied Sapozhok.

In addition, shows the use of antibacterial drugs, physical therapy tools and physical therapy.

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After surgery the prognosis is usually favorable. As a rule, in the long term function of the foot is completely restored.

Complications and consequences

If time does not begin treatment of tenosynovitis can develop quite dangerous complications. These include the following:

  • fistula;
  • contracture;
  • stenosis ligament of the channel;
  • the development of an abscess;
  • the infection of the adjacent tissues;
  • the growth of scar tissue;
  • the formation of dense knots in the area of the tendon;
  • loss of function of damaged feet.

Preventive measures

To prevent the development of pathology, we need to engage in preventive measures. These include the maximum reduction of load on the tibia, the correct selection of shoes.

Doctors recommend to periodically change the type of activity and take short breaks.

Equally important is a complete warm-up muscles before work or exercise.

If any discomfort should immediately consult the doctor.

Tenosynovitis of the foot is a serious disease that can lead to negative health effects. This disease is accompanied by intense pain and can significantly degrade the quality of human life.

To prevent the occurrence of dangerous complications at the first pain in the foot need to contact the doctor. The specialist will deliver an accurate diagnosis and select the most effective therapy.