The main types of fractures of the foot: symptoms and treatment, how to work
The symptoms and treatment of fractures of the leg, depending on localization and type of injury
A broken leg is called a complete or partial violation of the integrity of one or more bones of the leg.
This severe trauma that requires a long treatment and recovery.
Causes of fractures are divided into three categories:
- the result of birth trauma;
- the result of an accident;
- due to the course of the disease, with signs is, in particular, fragility of the bones (osteomyelitis, osteoporosis, tuberculosis, etc.).
Usually meets the second type of fractures due to various injuries and accidents that happen to people as a result of their activities.
Fractures in infants are rare because their bones are more flexible and agile than adults.
In old age the number of fracture may increase due to increased bone fragility and decrease as a result more calm and cautious the life of the elderly.
The clinical picture
A foot fracture diagnosed by such symptoms:
- limited mobility of the legs;
- increasing swelling at the site of injury;
- subcutaneous hemorrhage at the site of injury;
- sharp pain when trying to move the damaged leg.
Also identify the following significant characteristics:
- unnatural bend of the leg;
- crepitus with movement of the leg;
- the bent leg in a place where there is no joint;
- violation of the skin, bleeding, visible bone fragments (open leg fracture).
Varieties of trauma
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Fractures are divided into open and closed.
Open fracture of the legs more severe type of injury characterized by impaired the appearance of the skin and muscle rupture, bleeding. A closed fracture is easier in that respect, but harder to diagnosis.
The localization of fractures of the foot are divided into fractures of the thigh, leg and foot.
Features fractures of the femur
Femur – the longest bone in the human body. One end is involved in the hip, another in the knee joint.
Therefore, the femur fractures are divided into fractures of the hip joint, fractures of the body of the bone, fractures of the distal part of the femur.
Fractures of the upper part of the hip more common in older people, and women.
In the elderly, these injuries are related to the fact that with age becomes thinner the bone tissue of the acetabulum, and it is quite common drop for obtaining the fracture.
Women have a somewhat different structure of the pelvic region, and it carries the increased load. In addition, older women at the menopause is often a lack of calcium in the skeleton, and the bones more brittle.
Often there are fractures of the neck, head, and base of the femoral neck.
Symptom of fracture of the upper thigh is swelling damaged legs, and its incorrect position, it leans outwards, as if the hip joint has failed.
Sharp pain in the supine position, the patient cannot raise the leg «syndrome adhering heel» is sufficient for an experienced physician sign.
For fractures of the diaphysis of the bone and the distal part of the femur often leads to physical effects of high energy, that is, the result of accidents, fights, falls, and other downsides of an active lifestyle.
The type of injury closed fractures of the diaphysis are divided into:
- with displacement.
To recognize a fracture of the diaphysis possible by the fact that the foot is shortened, abnormally movable, where there is no joint strain.
Fractures are accompanied by severe pain, inability to stand on leg.
The distal part of the thigh has two endings – Misaki. Fractures of the leg are intra-articular – fractures of both or any one condyle – and extra-articular.
Common cause of these injuries – an accident, sudden braking causes the shock of the knee on the dashboard. In old age when bone is fragile enough drop on the knee for the occurrence of fracture.
At fracture of the patella outwardly, the knee looks enlarged fractures are often accompanied by internal bleeding, blood pools in the articular capsule.
Mobility is limited, sometimes shortened limb, and a sharp pain, the inability of independent movement.
Injury of lower leg
A small fibula and tibia bones make up the lower leg. Accordingly, the broken can be both dice, or one of them.
Localization of such injuries are divided into fractures of the proximal, middle part and lower section of the lower leg.
This includes bone fractures within the knee joint, broken ankle, and fractures of the ankle.
Common symptoms of these fractures include acute pain, swelling, hematoma at the fracture site. Leg involuntarily bent at the knee, the displacement of the tibia, with swelling below the knee.
If broken tibia, supports the leg impossible. Fibula bears a lower load, it is possible to lightly draw. Ankle fractures are accompanied by severe edema, foot turned unnaturally to one side, a leg to stand impossible.
Fractures of the foot
In the foot has 26 different bones. The foot takes on the weight of the person, and any violation of its integrity in case of unsuccessful treatment in the future may deprive a person comfortable and free to move.
It is therefore very important to properly treat this injury. Fractures of the foot happen in case of unsuccessful jumping, excessive pressure on the foot, or as a result of physical impact.
The bones of the foot form three main divisions:
- the Tarsus;
- the metatarsal;
The Tarsus consists of:
- the heel;
- the talus;
- the scaphoid;
- and the three cuneiform bones.
The talus connects with the tibia at the ankle joint, the sphenoid bone join the metatarsal. The metatarsal bones connect to the phalanges.
Common symptoms for the diagnosis of fracture of the bones of the foot: pain in foot, swelling, or swelling and bruising in the region of the intended fracture, the inability to rely on foot, sometimes deformity and crepitus, if we are talking about the fractured metatarsal bones or fracture of the toe.
First, define the externally the form of a fracture, open or closed.
If the fracture is open and is accompanied by bleeding, you should use a tourniquet, the wound sprinkled with powder streptotsida.
To properly immobilize an injured leg by putting a splint of the material at hand, and immediately call an ambulance or bring the patient to the hospital.
In a closed fracture are the same, with the exception of the harness, that is, make a fixed leg and call an ambulance. You can make a shot for the pain, it will not hurt.
In no case should not touch the debris, and visible bones, especially to reduce them in the wound.
Therapy injuries in a medical institution
The first thing you would do in a hospital for a person with a fracture – numb limb.
Then do an exam and take an x-ray of the damaged bone with the aim to establish an accurate diagnosis.
The operation is conducted, which can last from 20 minutes to several hours depending on the severity of the damage. With open fractures will be sutured vessels, muscle, will handle the edges of the wound.
Correctly fold and seal, if necessary, bones, suture the wound, put a bandage and plaster.
In a closed fracture settles the diagnosis.
Sometimes it is enough to achieve the correct position of the bones with closed reduction followed by plaster. Do fractures of the diaphysis of the femur and tibia with offset.
Fractures of tibia and fibula skeletal sometimes you need the hood with the attaching of the individual cargo to the proper staging and treatment of bone of the lower leg.
In the most severe cases is required to open the fracture surgically in order to fasten the bone fragments for the fusion.
Fractures of the proximal femur typically required for such intervention.
At fracture of the patella simply immobilize for a certain period to fusion of bone. Control of the treatment performed by the physician using x-ray.
The duration of treatment of the fracture of one month in mild cases up to a year in severe.
In the process of accretion of bone the patient will use crutches with the broken leg, foot, middle and lower part of the hip.
Fractures of the proximal femur movement on the legs is prohibited, prescribe bed rest.
After fusion, the doctor will prescribe physical therapy to restore motor activity of the legs, exercise atrophied muscles, restoring their tone. Apply medical therapeutic massage.
The muscle surrounding the injured bone, warm up with the help of baths with herbs and sea salt.
The nutrition of the patient with a fracture should be enriched with products containing calcium and phosphorus, various micronutrients. These nutrients are contained in dairy products, eggs, nuts, some cereals, and fish.
Also, if the bone’s healing should include in the diet products containing jelly forming substances – jellies, aspic, mousse, jelly, concentrated bone broth. Food should be rich in vitamins b, D, C, A. you Should spend more time on the sunlight — vitamin D helps calcium to be absorbed.
Fracture of the legs or both legs is a dangerous test for the person, especially if he is accustomed to lead a sedentary life.
Sometimes downtime helps to rethink his life, to draw the necessary conclusions.
And, of course, you should always follow the advice of doctors, otherwise the fracture may not heal, and then have to break the bone again, and to endure pain and physical suffering for the second time.
To prevent the fractures try to stick to safety in any form in your life, whether it’s driving a car, or climbing.
Should not take the risk, the fees can be very large. Unfortunately, not all fractures are amenable to complete cure. In some cases, the person remains disabled for the rest of my life.