The reasons for which occurs cervical scoliosis: treatment, complications
The symptoms and treatment of scoliosis of the cervical spine
Scoliosis persistent lateral curvature of the spine.
According to statistics, the disease affects about 40% of the population, with more affected women. One of the varieties of curvature is cervical scoliosis.
As an independent the disease is not common, but cervical spine is often affected when the curvature of the upper part of the sternum, so it klassificeret as scoliosis of the cervical – thoracic spine.
The disease may begin to develop at any age and for various reasons.
Cervical scoliosis – curvature of the spine to the left or right localization in 3 — 6 thoracic vertebrae.
Dangerous not only persistent pain, but also a violation of the blood supply in the brain. Pathology is often accompanied by displacement of the vertebral artery, which supplies blood to about 25% of brain structures.
The causes of the disease
To establish the etiology of the disease remains elusive. Experts identify several possible factors that can trigger its occurrence:
- Hormonal theory suggests that the curvature is due to the hormonal changes the body. Endocrine disorders lead to softening of bones, there is a strain of the muscle tissue, resulting in the development of the deformation of the spine.
- Neuromuscular theory asserts that during active growth of the skeletal structure not kept pace with growth of the vertebrae. Muscles become weaker, the spine is badly perceived load and the curvature.
- The theory relates dysplastic disorders in the cervical spine, with poor circulation and insufficient nutrition of the vertebral column.
- Neurogenic theory all the problems attributed to pathologies of the nervous system.
Deviations of the spine stop growing after puberty.
Varieties of pathology
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According to the classification of Moshkovich cervical scoliosis on the origin are divided into:
On lateral curvature:
- C — shaped with a single arc, which is directed to the left or to the right;
- S – shaped with two arcs facing in different directions;
- Z – shaped with three circular arcs in this scoliosis of the lower and upper arc look in one direction, and located between them – in reverse.
Angle of curvature distinguish 4 degrees, which can only be determined with x-ray examination:
- I – angle from 1 – 100;
- II – 11-250 ;
- III – 26-400 ;
- IV – over 400 .
Detectable curvature in time
Symptoms of scoliosis of the cervical spine vary depending on what the reason for the deformity: pathological condition of the spinal column or due to compression of blood vessels and failure of blood flow to the brain.
Depending on these characteristics there are the following forms of curvature:
- low cervical.
Scoliosis in the upper part of the neck is classified lateral bending at the level of vertebrae 1-4. At this point the patient may not experience severe symptoms, but worried about his frequent headaches, General fatigue, inability to normally Flex the neck, pain in the temporal region.
In the cervical form of scoliosis observed pain at the back of the head, especially after sleep. During the day the pain was slightly reduced. Flexor and extensor movements of the neck are practically impossible due to hypertonicity of muscles.
Low cervical scoliosis is manifested in pain in the upper back and shoulder girdle. The pain gets worse while bending and inhale, perhaps numbness of hands.
Second and third degree is characterized by unilateral pain from the affected side, later pain may spread to the occipital and vernardou region, there is an asymmetrical position of the head and shoulders, turn and tilt of the head is missing.
Common symptoms with any form of deformation include:
- headache and dizziness;
- pain radiating to the neck and shoulder girdle;
- the pain in his head intensifies during physical exertion, stay in an uncomfortable position, weight lifting;
- dizziness leads to the appearance of spots, loss of consciousness, nausea;
- when poor blood flow to the brain may reduce acuity of hearing and vision, loss of taste sensations;
- pain in the region of the heart impossible to take his heart medicine, but successfully used painkillers: «Citramon», «Baralgin», «Askofen».
At home, conduct the following test: the patient must be put straight, fix the shoulders and ask them to turn the head in one direction and then the other side, touching the middle of the chin the shoulder.
The angle of rotation must be identical and be approximately 80-900 . When the body is tilted with lowered hands also easy to notice the asymmetry of the body and the curvature of the spine.
To confirm the diagnosis the patient is sent for x-ray examination, which will show the degree of spinal curvature by Cobb angle.
Pictures are made in the supine position on horizontal and inclined plane, as well as standing.
In major medical centers before the appointment of treatment offer the patient to conduct an electromyography, which allows to identify any deviations in the functioning of the muscles and motor functions of the neck.
At lateral cervical scoliosis, apply the following types of electromyography:
- neurography – used to estimate limit values of the transmission of impulses in motor fibers;
- stimulation – identify the degree of transmission of excitation through sensory and motor fibers.
The treatment of cervical scoliosis depends on several factors: the degree of curvature, the form of the disease, the patient’s condition.
Conservative method is the removal of pain, improvement of posture, prevention of further development of scoliosis.
It uses the following recreational activities:
- sleep on a rigid surface;
- therapeutic massage and manual therapy;
- electrical stimulation of the muscles in the area of curvature;
- the use of a special corset.
Exercises can be performed in various forms of scoliosis, but resistant forms of the deformity correction will not work.
The greatest effect is achieved when the curvatures in the initial stages. Also do they need in combination with other treatment methods, the only way to achieve results.
When selecting exercises it is necessary to consider the extent of the disease and the patient’s condition.
The orthopedic surgeon selects the complex, specially designed for a specific patient. Physiotherapy helps to reduce the load on the spine and internal organs, strengthens the back muscles, aligns your posture.
If traditional methods of treatment failed or the patient has cervical scoliosis 4 degrees, in this case, it is recommended surgery:
- resection of the intervertebral disc and plates assigned to the protrusion, or hernia;
- stabilization of deformation with the use of grafts;
- cosmetic surgery to remove visible defects.
The rehabilitation period
After surgery requires a minimum of three months for the bone fusion. To create a comfortable healing environment, appoint specialist plaster bandage or growdigital.
After 5 weeks, the recommended restorative treatment with the doctor – rehabilitologist. Classes will help to reduce pain, improve flexibility, relieve inflammation, and faster return to active life. Treatments are carried out at least 3 $ /week for 2 months.
Full recovery can take up to 6 months. Further, it is possible to lead a normal life, but with the restriction for high physical activity.
Any surgical intervention is fraught with complications. They can occur both during the operation itself, for example, damage to the spinal cord, blood vessels, destruction of the diseased vertebrae, or already in a rehabilitation period (purulent inflammation).
It should be remembered that none of the operations have not eliminated the defects of the cervical scoliosis.
Therefore, before deciding on such a complex manipulation will discuss all risks with your doctor and possible treatment options.
Preventive measures aimed primarily at strengthening the back, smoothing of hereditary predisposition.
Doctors recommend daily gymnastics, yoga instructor.
With a dominant sitting position it is necessary to monitor the posture that the spine was straight, there’s no need to lower your head and shoulders should be straightened.
In addition, it is recommended to do 5 minute breaks for light exercise and stretching of the back slopes.
Should reconsider the diet. Special restrictions do not exist, but you need to add foods high in calcium, phosphorus, and especially of protein (up to 100 gr. a day).
It can be lean meat, sea fish, cheese, dairy products.
Cervical scoliosis is a serious pathology, which over time can lead to changes in the brain. So do not put off treatment, and at the first symptoms immediately seek medical help.
Regular exercise, proper balanced diet, control over posture will help you return to an active lifestyle or even prevent the disease.