The rib synostosis, metopic, Radiolaria and other types of pathology

What types of synostosis allocates medicine

The synostosis is the process of splicing of one or two adjacent bones.

Synostosis are spontaneous, i.e. congenital, traumatic or anatomical,

Also are artificial, i.e. created operational method.

Principal pathology

Let us consider specific types of anomalies.

Metopic

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Metopic synostosis — premature splicing of the frontal bones. Usually, the frontal suture is not overgrown in young children under the age of 24 months.

If the frontal bone bonding before birth or immediately after it, in this case, frontal mounds do not grow and develop. The skull subsequently acquires a triangular form, creating in the area of the frontal suture obtuse angle.

Very often combined with other malformations, being an integral element and syndrome of many evils.

If there is a polished metopic synostosis shown a full surgical intervention within the first 2 months after birth.

Isolated lambdoid

This type of synostosis is rare and is accompanied by an increase in the thickness of the occiput and extension of the large Fontanelle with the increase of the anterior part of the skull.

Usually combined with premature closure of the sagittal suture so-called.

Pathology of the ribs

The ribs synostosis is fusion of the bones in the back or front of the body.

Very rarely the ribs are fully spliced.

It so happens that along the length of the splice appear round or oval, well-defined bone perforated defects.

The space between ribs becomes asymmetric.

Possible restorative therapy.

There are also surgical methods of treatment, however, you must consider each situation individually.

Congenital radioulnar

The synostosis is observed quite rarely — in a little less than 10% of all cases of congenital deformities of the limbs. Most often, this abnormality is found in men and on the right side.

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It is noted the transmission of disease by inheritance. A synostosis can be distal (rarely) or proximal ends of the human bones.

Clinically it can be noted Produzione location of the forearm with absolutely no supination, often the restriction of movement of the bones in the elbow joint.

A typical radiograph of the proximal ends of the bones are spliced on 3-4 centimeters. The head of the radius bone is vivanta or atrophied.

If the patient is not able to adapt to the defect, treatment only operational, by implanting a new joint.

But the outcomes of surgical treatment are often unsatisfactory because of the constant recurrence of the adhesions, but this may not prevent even the use of different plastic strips.

Pathology Of Klippel-Feil

Syndrome, Klippel-feil is a very rare congenital anomaly in the development of the bones of the spine, which is accompanied by a synostosis or by reducing the number of cervical vertebrae.

This disease was described by French doctors: Clippele and Falem more than 100 years ago. The main characteristic features of such phenomena are referred as short neck, poor mobility of the upper spine, and decrease growth of hair on his head.

Also, probably a combination with many other anomalies, including those with heart defects, spina bifida, cleft palate and scoliosis.

In addition, patients with syndrome of Klippel-feil are identified congenital malformations in the respiratory system, namely, ribs, kidneys, genital organs, hands, fingers, in the upper and lower parts of the body.

Usually the treatment for this type of synostosis is conservative, with a strong cosmetic defect may be responsible for removal located at the top of the ribs.

To prevent future, secondary deformities and improve posture, patients do massage, prescribing therapeutic exercise and doing physical therapy.

At the further appearance of pain used analgesics. With a strong compression of the nerve roots is surgery.

Union of bones

Congenital synostosis is abnormal bone, which is caused by aplasia or hypoplasia of the connective tissue between them.

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Often, there is an anomaly between the radius and ulna.

Rarely can be observed craniostenosis (premature fusion of two or more parent joints), the average synostosis with the nail phalanges of the fifth toe of the foot and synostosis of the wrist.

The books describe cases of splicing of adjacent phalanges of the fingers, normally developed synostosis of ribs and merging the first and cervical(extra) rib.

After injury

Post-traumatic synostosis is the splice located next to each other bones due to the bone defect, periosteum or epiphyseal cartilage.

Most often, the pathology is detected between the bones of the forearm, bones of the lower leg and the adjacent vertebrae. The main reason for synostosis becomes the convergence of fragments of bones in the damage area.

Posttraumatic synostosis of the vertebrae is a result of ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament following dislocation of the vertebrae and fractures of the regional body bone.

The pathology of artificial origin

Artificial synostosis is the creation during the operation of fusion between the bones. It is used to correct severe bone defects and prevent the occurrence of false joints, etc.

Often the pathology appears between the tibia. The main load when walking after the surgery, pressure on the fibula, which later thickens and becomes compensatory as the tibia.

Physiological

The usual connections of the bones that occurs during maturation. In its normal synostosis appear in youth and adolescence in the place of the cartilaginous joints between sacral vertebrae, bones of the pelvis and the base of the skull.

When evnuhoidizme, hypergonadism, disease Kashin-Beck, and many other illnesses, this process is accelerated or slowed down, what could be the cause of the formation of the entire musculoskeletal system of the body.

Causes and risk factors

All the doctors and specialists identify genetic factors contributing to pathology.

These include hereditary genetic defect. The child is thus possible to observe the violation of differentiation of growth that is needed for correct further development of the entire skeleton (also formed between the bones and joints of the borders).

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All this, over time leads to disruption of bone formation of the skeleton on the third or ninth week of fetal development inside the womb.

In this form of inheritance in a family where someone from parents is a synostosis, the chance of having an affected child varies from 50 to 100%.

This type of inheritance is mostly found in the disease, Klippel-feil, and represents an autosomal recessive inheritance of the disease.

Dangerous than the disease

The disease is a danger primarily to the fact that is difficult to treat and has a large number of complications in the process of life.

The synostosis when not treated, can cause severe disability and delayed mental development of the child, and even if the pathology was identified in the early stages of the disability attributed to almost always.

The disease, though unpleasant, but to live with it, you can comfortable enough with timely treatment to the doctor although much depends primarily on the strength of the bone lesion.

Almost always is the only correct solution is operational. The prognosis for life is generally favorable in most cases and subject to intensive physical therapy during the postoperative period, it is possible to recover the functions of the skeleton to 100%.