The symptoms and treatment of chondromatosis knee joint

The signs of development and treatment of knee joint chondromatosis

Chondromatous knee is a chronic disease, in which there is degeneration of the synovial membrane of the joint capsule the cartilage, or chondromalacia body.

Their sizes vary from a few millimeters to centimeters, and the number can be from one to hundreds of units benign inclusions. In severe disease there is a complete ossification of the affected areas.

Cartilaginous body located on the inner surface of the capsule of the knee joint. Sometimes they may have a vascular stem, which performs the function of transporting them nutrients.

Most often, tumors are formed from the bottom of the meniscus and of the mucous membrane of the cruciate ligaments.

Also, the process can get involved small joints and the tibia, deep mucous bag. Rarely this disease can contribute to the formation of malignant or benign tumors, chondrosarcoma and chondroma respectively.

What happens when the development of pathology?

When chondromatosis there is a violation of blood circulation in the knee joint, as a consequence the production of synovial fluid becomes less, and this leads to the development of other pathologies in the anatomical structure.

Over time, one can observe the emergence of so-called «joint mice» – same chondromatosis body, which is separated from the surface of the joint capsule. All these processes cause pinching of structures, violations of the health and education of chronic focus.

This disease affects usually large joints. According to the statistics most often reveal chondromatous the knee joint. Moreover, this process may be localized not only in the articular capsule and the joint capsule, and synovial sheaths.

Metaplasia in the majority of cases observed in the male half of the population, it is sometimes diagnosed in children in the first year of life, in this case we speak of an innate pathology.

Causes and risk factors

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Until today, this problem is not fully understood. Doctors suggest that the main risk factor for the occurrence of the disease is a genetic predisposition.

It is also believed that cause metaplasia of the synovial membrane of the joint capsule can become the following States:

  1. Frequent trauma to the knee joint, especially if the damage is repeated constantly. This reason is often seen in professional athletes, people who lead an extreme lifestyle and those who carry heavy physical loads.
  2. Violation of metabolic processes in the tissues of the joint.
  3. Infectious diseases.
  4. Violation of division of cells during embryogenesis. This reason occurs when talking about the congenital form of chondromatosis. In this case, the abnormality may be the only disease, or combined with other disorders, for the same reason.
  5. Concomitant diseases of musculoskeletal system.

Development stages and types of pathology

Depending on the nature of the disease it is divided into the following forms:

  1. Stable. When it is observed the formation of several individual (10) or multiple primary (average 20-25) tumors. Further, the formation of cartilage becomes very slow or fades at all.
  2. Progressive. This form is characterized by continuous formation chondromatosis bodies, and their number may exceed tens and hundreds.
  3. Ostomates.
  4. Chondromatous bursal and tendon sheath.

The last two forms of the disease are extremely rare.

Types of chondromatosis knee joint:

  1. Innate. Develops when the violation of fetal development. Characterized by the presence of osteochondral conglomerates and bodies inside the joint capsule.
  2. Postnatal. Appears under the influence of external factors. Can be diagnosed in the form of tumors benign (chondroma) or malignant (chondrosarcoma) character.

The symptoms of the disease

In the initial stage of the disease can be identified only during routine examination for any other reasons. The reason is that a long period of time, it occurs without any effects.

The first symptoms of chondromatosis the knee joint begin to worry only when the size of the cartilaginous bodies exceed 1 centimeter.

A clinical picture similar to subacute form of arthritis.

The first symptom that bothers the patient, is pain. Also, there is limitation of motion of the affected limb, crunching. There may be mild swelling.

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Often the examination can determine the presence of fluid in the cavity of the joint capsule. In this case, there is swelling and local temperature increase in the affected area.

If the knee has already formed a «joint mouse» may occur periodically pinched, which causes a temporary blocking of the mobility.

After the liberation of cartilage flaps of the body movement is restored. In cases where this process is repeated often enough, it is possible to observe the formation of muscle atrophy of an affected limb, contractures, stiffness.

The danger of the disease is a circulation disorder of the knee joint and produce synovial fluid.

As a result, gonarthrosis, coxarthrosis. If you start the process and not get treatment can develop serious consequences.

Diagnostic methods

Diagnosis is possible after visual inspection and palpation, since the probe can be detected cartilage of the body.

In addition, are appointed by the instrumental methods:

  1. The x-rays. Lets see how extensive is the process.
  2. Arthrography. Is performed under the control of the radiograph and a contrast material is injected into the cavity of the affected joint.
  3. Arthroscopy. Method visual inspection of the joint capsule by the introduction into its cavity of the endoscope. Is the most authentic.
  4. Ultrasound (in the early stages does not reveal a pathology).
  5. Biopsy of the synovial membrane. The study can be detected chondromatosis nodules.
  6. MRI and CT of the joint.

Begin the diagnosis with less invasive methods. If the doctor doubts the diagnosis, there are specific instrumental methods of research.

Therapeutic methods

Goal of therapy: restore circulation, and all impaired functions of the affected knee joint.

To treat chondromalacia the knee joint is possible in two ways: conservative and operative.

Immediately it is worth noting that the first method is ineffective and allows only for a while to get rid of the symptoms of the pathological process.

With a conservative approach, a rheumatologist prescribes medicines that help relieve pain, swelling and other related symptoms.

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Also, he can hold the squeezing out of the joint capsule of the neoplasm by mechanical pressure. The result of the function of the knee is restored and pressure is reduced in the joint. But after a while there might occur a relapse.

The operational method is to remove all cartilaginous bodies, if a lot of them, talking about the removal of the synovial capsule.

After the intervention relapses are rare. In such cases, may recommend joint replacement prosthesis. The same approach and in the presence of deformation.

In the congenital form of the disease carry out the operation you need immediately, this will help prevent bending of the bones due to overgrowth of cartilage that causes disability.

Possible complications

When you neglect the process may develop such consequences:

  • deformation of the knee joint;
  • coxarthrosis;
  • gonarthrosis;
  • arthritis.

Forecast

With early detection of pathology, the prognosis is favorable. It depends on the surgery and the extensiveness of the disease.

In the absence of immediate treatment in the congenital form occurs deformity, with subsequent disability.

Preventive measures

To prevent the disease, you need to exercise regularly, access to the pool, spending more time in the fresh air.

Avoiding relapse can help therapeutic exercises with gradually increasing load.

Thus, chondromatous knee is a severe pathology, identifying which is necessary to proceed immediately to treatment interventions.

This approach will provide an opportunity to regain lost function of the affected limb and prevent complications.