The true causes of exostosis — symptoms, treatment, prevention
What is exostosis and how we remove them?
Very often, especially in childhood, we hear a terrifying diagnosis: exostosis. What kind of disease, and so whether it is dangerous?
This bone and cartilage or bone overgrowth nonneoplastic nature on the surface of the bone. First, the tumor consists of cartilage, but with time it hardens and is converted into spongy bone.
Above is the cartilaginous plaque with a thickness of several millimeters. He then serves as the basis for further growth of the tumor.
The main danger of the disease is that it develops very slowly and are asymptomatic. The size of the growths can vary from a few millimeters to ten or more centimeters.
Another feature of the exostosis is that it usually is diagnosed in adolescence, when there is intensive growth of the skeleton. There is also the theory of hereditary predisposition to the disease, but it has not been confirmed.
Causes and risk factors
Formation growth occurs for different reasons and depends on many factors.
It can be:
- injury or impairment;
- disruption of the functioning of the endocrine system;
- anomalies in the development of cartilage and periosteum;
- some infectious diseases (e.g., syphilis).
Today a large number of studies aimed at the study of heredity of this disease.
However, despite the fact that there are many cases of family exostosis, most scientists are skeptical about this theory. After all, it does not explain individual cases, and therefore can not be the only right one.
At the same time, there are certain risk factors that affect the development of the disease. Chief among them is the excessive amount of calcium in the body.
Settling on the bones, this element eventually leads to the formation of growths. Hypercalcemia may occur due to excessive consumption of eggs, dairy, cabbage, parsley, or hard water.
Features of bone and cartilage growth
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Osteochondral exostoses, or osteochondroma is a benign tumor of bone formed from cartilage.
Disease usually not apparent until 8 years, but in the period of active growth of the skeleton from 8 to 17 years – the likelihood of its development increases several times. Most often it is diagnosed in teenagers in puberty.
When osteochondroma the number of nodules may vary from units to tens.
On this basis the disease is divided into two types:
- Solitary osteo-cartilaginous exostosis. Always a single tumor. It can be of different sizes and is fixed. With a significant increase in the tumor can put pressure on blood vessels and nerve trunks;
- Multiple ectstasy chondrodysplasia. This kind of disease is characterized by the appearance of several tumors. It chondrodysplasia most often inherited.
Classification and localization
In most cases the exostosis is diagnosed on the shoulder joint, hip bone, clavicle, scapula, tibia.
According to statistics, 50% of all falls exostosis on the tibia and femur. Much less frequently the disease affects the hands and feet. Also medicine is not aware of any cases of the formation of growths on the skull.
If the disease affects the spine, when its further development may occur compression of the spinal cord.
This localization of threat that leads to serious disturbances in the Central nervous system and is also the most prone to malignant rebirth.
Symptoms and diagnosis
The disease develops very slowly and usually without symptoms. It could take years before the disease would be revealed. The only exceptions are cases when the growths put pressure on blood vessels or nerve endings.
Then maybe the appearance of pain in the region of compression, a feeling of numbness or tingling on the skin, headaches, dizziness.
Most often the disease is detected incidentally during the passage of x-rays. Without an x-ray diagnosis is almost impossible.
Conducting this kind of study allows to say about the number and shape of tumors, their size and development. At the same time, it is necessary to note that the cartilaginous plaque, which covers the new growth, the picture is not visible.
Therefore, the true size of the tumor is always more than they seem.
Removal of growths
Methods of conservative treatment of the disease does not exist. If necessary, the expanded areas of bone tissue removed during surgery.
Children up to 18 years of operation, try not to hold in mind that it is possible self-resolution of exostosis.
The operation is performed:
- if on the face of the rapid expansion of the tissues;
- if the tumor is so big that stands out on the surface;
- if the tumors compress the vessels or nerves.
Surgical treatment is performed under local or General anesthesia depending on the size and localization of tumors. First, using the chisel removes bone spurs, and then special tools smoothed the bone.
In the video, removal of exostosis of the auditory canal is:
Recovery after surgery
Rehabilitation takes no more than two weeks. If you did removing just one tumor, the patient can get out of bed the next day.
Recovery after surgery is divided into two stages. In the first set sparing motor mode. Then, when reduced the swelling, is assigned the recovery mode. In the postoperative period is very important to return the muscles to their strength.
To condition that the training exercises did not hurt. Only then the recovery is considered successful.
Complications of the disease
In most cases, the exostosis does not carry a lot of danger, but sometimes there are complications of the disease. Should we be worried if the growths are formed in the region of the spine.
Then, during intensive growth, they can compress the spinal cord, resulting in serious consequences.
In children and adolescents with the development of multiple chondrodysplasia the possible deformation of the skeleton. Sometimes, though quite rare, this pathology is diagnosed as a fracture of the leg of exostosis.
If tumors begin to grow rapidly, there is a likelihood of malignant transformation.
Typically, cancerous tumors form on the thigh, the vertebrae, the scapula, the pelvis. They may have morphological structure of spindle cell sarcoma, chondrosarcoma and other species.
To date, there is no certain preventive measures for this disease.
The only way to prevent the growths is regular inspection and examination. A particularly important kind of prevention for children, as they have the bony growths can cause skeletal deformities.
In addition, you always need to undergo routine medical examination after an injury. Any injury, damage nail or a bone fracture can be the cause of the disease.
Also not superfluous will be to keep under control information on the amount of calcium in the body, an excess also leads to the formation of growths on the bones.
Instead of a conclusion
Whatever the reason for the development of exostosis, don’t be afraid. In fact, the disease is not so terrible, as can seem at first.
Yes, in some cases, with intensive growth of the tumor, it can really degenerate into malignant. However, this happens infrequently.
In most cases, the prognosis in this disease is favorable. Bony growths successfully removed in any clinic without any consequences. And sometimes even exhibit self-resolution of the disease.
It happens in children when the disease resolves spontaneously. So don’t panic. Believe in the best and the disease will retreat.