Treatment of knee injury at home and in stationary conditions
What to do when knee injury: first aid and treatment
The knee joint belongs to the group of the largest joints of the human body.
He plays the role of a hinge, which allows you to straighten and bend the leg. However, unlike the latter, the knee joint is characterized by this ability, as the rotation (movement in a circle).
Its anatomy has the following components: tibia, femur and patella.
What happens during injury?
Under the medical injury involve soft tissue damage of a certain area of the body.
In the case of the knee-these may include:
- Skin and subcutaneous tissue. Very often when you suffer injury the skin, resulting in a wound surface.
- Muscle fibers. Due to the damage of muscle tissues undergo a lot of strain, responding spasm, entailing pain.
- Bundles. If the damaged articular ligaments, the mobility of the knee joint is in question.
- Cartilage – shock absorber, cushioning make motion. If the threat experienced by cartilage, and suffer the bones of the knee joint.
- Vessels. When you break the large vessel disrupted the operation of the joint.
Thus, the result of injury is the occurrence of difficulties in movement of the legs and move it in space.
In the absence of proper treatment may also develop inflammation, this process may be involved in cartilage and bone tissue. The result of the most unpleasant phenomenon of getting arthritis.
The cause of trauma is commonplace
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Often get knee injury when falling, for example, when ice at the time of exercise.
To cause damage of the knee joint can also drop in for this part of the leg of a heavy object, or pinching (in the case of a traffic accident).
Anyway, the cause of the injury is a mechanical effect.
Varieties of trauma
There are the following types of pathologies:
- without fractures;
- with bone or articular fractures;
- without dislocation;
- with the dislocation.
In addition, when injury can be affected by all components of the knee joint or separate part:
- full injury;
- partial (muscles, tendons, surrounding tissues, ligaments).
What happens in trauma?
To the group of the main symptoms of knee injury are:
- Hemarthrosis – blood in the joint cavity. This characteristic may be expressed in different degrees, and it was from him depends largely on the manifestation of other symptoms.
- Pain that may take more intense with movement or objective research.
- Swelling of the damaged area. Is the result of swelling of soft tissues.
- Bruising of the skin over an injured area – the consequence of a breach of vascular integrity.
- Disorder of mobility due to the formed mechanical obstacles in the joint.
The severity of symptoms depends on several factors: the square of the damaged area, location of the injury impact forces on the tissue, the angle of attack.
Diagnosis of injury
Injury is diagnosed primarily on the basis of physical examination, which involves visual inspection
damaged joint, and palpation of the place of injury.
The next stage of diagnosis – medical-diagnostic puncture. With its help determine the presence of the joint cavity fluid (blood), if necessary, removed, which leads to a decrease intraarticular pressure and reduce pain.
When injury the knee joint is also shown an x-ray examination, which convinced of the integrity/damage bone tissue. If there is a fracture, determine the location of fragments.
Ultrasound will help professionals to assess the current condition of the structural components of the joint.
In some instances, endoscopy is the procedure of puncturing the injury site and the introduction into the joint cavity of the endoscope. So it is possible to assess the degree of severity of the injury.
A knee injury: how to help the patient?
In the case of knee injury is extremely necessary first aid. From the literacy of the follow-up depends largely on the fate of the joint.
Consistently perform the following:
- Limit the load on the damaged area.
- To the affected area apply a piece of ice or any cold object. This will help prevent swelling and relieve pain.
- In the case of severe, unceasing pain needs painkillers (Analgin, Ibuprofen).
- Impose a pressure bandage (no bandage you can use any other material). Our goal is well to fix the knee joint, but leave the muscles of the limb in a comfortable condition.
- The patient should be laid so that the damaged knee was higher.
Treatment of injury of the knee joint is the patient in order to:
- pain and swelling;
- the interruption of the development of the inflammatory process;
- restore functionality of the joint.
Medical treatment of the injury involves the reception:
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Among the most commonly used tools are: Oksigan; Analgin; Diclofenac; Indomethacin. Named the medicines taken orally or injected into the joint.
- Chondroprotector (Collagen ultra, Permatron) – compounds, composed of elements of joint fluid. With their help, filled her fault and supported the normal functioning of the joint. Medicines injected into the joint cavity using a thin needle.
Physiotherapy (UHF, the effects of dynamic currents) are assigned a week and a half after the injury.
What else can you do when knee injury?
An integral part of rehabilitation therapy is therapeutic exercise. To start training only with the permission of the doctor. The exercise in the case of knee injury should be preceded by a warm compress to increase blood flow to the sick area.
Begin with stretching exercises, performing them at a leisurely pace:
- in a seated position reach to the knees, socks;
- lying on his stomach and tucked under the thigh of the affected limb pad by a springy leg movement in a downward direction;
- sitting on the edge of the chair, put the affected leg over the healthy and pull her back, gradually applying more effort;
- lie on the floor and the ankle aching limbs bound cargo, the healthy leg bent at the knee, raise the cargo above the floor to a height of about 10 cm, fix the position for a few seconds, relax.
All the exercises you need to perform up to 10 times. After stretching you can begin to:
- walking (upper body tilting slightly forward), walk 10 minutes;
- Propriedades – 20 times;
- strength training on upper body (push-UPS dumbbell in the supine position);
- Cycling – 10 minutes.
Not hurt by injury and massage. It is usually prescribed after 10-12 days after the injury.
Grandma’s recipes to help
There are many healing remedies that can ease the suffering of the patient in trauma.
For treating knee injury at home use these recipes:
- Fresh cabbage leaf fix to his knee, leave it for an hour, then replaced. Repeat several times in a row.
- Dry, chopped tarragon, mix with a little vaseline and leave it in a hot oven for 2 hours. The finished grease composition, the damaged area 3 times a day.
- The pulp of aloe Vera mixed with fresh honey and applied to injury and perebintovyvaem. Leave for a few hours.
- Rubs the sore spot soap.
To self-medicate only after consultation with your doctor.
In the absence of appropriate measures when severe injury of the knee may develop some complications:
- Accumulation of fluid in the joint cavity. Causes severe swelling and increase joint. Shown the plaster bandage sometimes puncture.
- Fracture or dislocation.
- Damaged meniscus – the cartilage plates of a joint. Such injury can lead to disability.
- Bursitis (irritation/inflammation of the Bursa). When infection develops purulent bursitis treatment which involves surgical intervention.
In order to avoid injuries of the knee joint as a preventive measure is recommended to follow some tips:
- Maintain good physical shape of their feet. Perform exercises for stretching calf and hamstrings, perform climbs straight legs, pull knees to chest.
- Do not overload the knees (avoid deep squats and descents from the slopes).
- Give preference to shoes with good support for the arch of the foot, avoid heels.
- Regularly change the shoes for sports.
The knee injury is very serious in nature, may cause partial or complete loss of functionality of the joint. Therefore, qualified medical assistance is an indispensable condition for a favorable outcome and further fulfilling life.