Tuberculosis of the bones of the spine: symptoms, treatment and prognosis
Modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis of the spine
Tuberculosis of the spine is a very serious disease. The danger of disease that, when serious spread of mycobacteria in its ability to so affect the spine, which can then completely lose the ability to move.
What are the features of the disease?
The main factor of infection is mycobacteria tuberculosis. Often just a few sticks of tuberculosis, to start an active infection in the body.
However, contamination can occur at very fortified and stable immune system. Due to this factor a larger number of older people are not susceptible to the disease.
However, spinal tuberculosis infected children, of course, because of the weak defenses.
There are some predisposing factors that can affect disease development and even become the reason:
- trauma of the spine;
- frequent overcooling;
- the susceptibility of the organism to colds;
- poor working conditions or life;
- heavy physical exertion;
- contacts with those who are the source of infection in particular vectors of tuberculosis of the lungs and eyes.
Ways of infection
People carrying this disease and is considered the main source of infection. The allocation of the threat of mycobacteria occurs in the case that it has an open form of the disease.
Infection will depend on the duration of contact with baculoviridae, the nature of the contact and the body’s resistance to bacteria of this genus. In General, the methods of contact that leads to transmission of the virus long been disclosed and allocated in special category:
- Airborne path. Mycobacteria are contained even in very small droplets. They always stand out not only when sneezing or coughing, but also when speaking. However, even those bacteria that came to the surface, survive, and after the dust able to penetrate into the human body.
- Contact. Infection occurs through close contact with baculoviridae. This can happen through the skin or conjunctiva.
- Through the digestive tract (alimentary). In this case, the bacteria require a greater number that enter the body by ingestion, for example, water from the dishes previously used infected. Such method of infection is not just the defeat of disease of the abdominal organs, and lymph nodes.
- In utero. Lose of the fetus may cross the placenta.
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Classification of the disease
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Tuberculosis of the spine is divided only into two types: bone and synovial.
The last type of the disease is characterized by the fact that his hearth is located at the end of the joint. This is the most common and dangerous form, as it promotes the violation of the integrity and the progressive destruction of the cartilage. It is therefore important to recognize its development.
With the development of bone such as tuberculosis, the disease is concentrated not just in the articular end, and the spongy substance that fills it. The danger of this form is that it is not localized in one part, and capable of capturing new, healthy tissue.
Even the joint cavity in this case can form granulation.
Stages of development
The course of the disease occurs in several stages:
- the most active period of reproduction and distribution;
- the emergence of the first reactions of the body;
- accelerating breeding of bacteria, the appearance of necrotic areas;
- secondary response cycle, including the period in which man himself becomes a breeding ground for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
In addition to the previous classification the development of the disease can be divided into three successive stages. It is compounded exactly to the point when treatment is more complicated and less effective:
- primary osteitis;
- arthritic phase;
- postcritically phase occurs directly after tuberculous arthritis may be significantly delayed.
Symptoms of the disease
Recognition of the symptoms of tuberculosis of the bones of the spine complicated in the early stages, because symptoms of the disease is rather weak.
In particular, the people affected by this disease, there is often weakness, confusion, extremely fatigue, loss of appetite.
In the case of defeat by tuberculosis of the upper spine, you may experience swelling, pain when you try turning the head.
In this area it is possible to notice swelling, which will resemble a small hump.
In addition to the symptoms described above, revealed clubfoot, pain or feeling of heaviness in different parts of the spine.
Gradually, the abscess may affect tissue juxtaposed, leading to muscle weakness, and sometimes even paralizovana lower extremities.
Measures of diagnosis is quite extensive and includes the following ways of identifying pathology:
- MRI. Allows you to clearly identify affected areas, localization of the disease and its severity.
- An x-ray. One of the first measures, which are used for diagnosis. The photographs are usually well-marked areas where the spread of the tumor. This method of diagnosis are insufficient, as are additionally prescribed, e.g., MRI.
- Biopsy. Take on special tests and examination of a part of tissues.
- A blood test. Thanks to him, it becomes clear the presence of antistreptolysine and antistaphylococcal tel.
Modern treatment of the disease
Timely and proper treatment is extremely important in this pathology. It’s one of the most important parts of the body and if time does not begin treatment, possible stroke, and partial or complete paralysis.
Usually the process of treatment of tuberculosis of the bones of the spine is produced in special sanatoriums, which allows to provide not only proper care and treatments, but also recreation that is important.
To unload the spine initially shown to bed, which you need to observe in a special plaster bed.
Further load and, in particular, the movement become possible, but only when wearing a special plaster corset.
For the treatment of disease using the following methods:
- Antibacterial therapy. All combinations of drugs are selected in strict quantities and only individually. This list included Streptomycin, Rifampicin, Ftivazid. Therapy of this kind must be made at least a year.
- The adherence of the day, regulated and always subject to the availability of limited mobility.
- Medical supervision for mental and nervous condition.
- Immunotherapy is mandatory. Increase the body’s resistance and resilience to all kinds of diseases are extremely important. This will depend on how the success of the treatment, different procedures, and the possibility of a prolonged relapse.
- Orthopaedic treatment. Initially definitely shows a complete immobilization. If the patient initially had no possibility to go, then apply the opposite technique. So, is the gradual development of the former functions of the joints and spine and gradually is possible to gradually start walking.
What to consider
You should not expect too rapid a cure. In many cases this process is capable of has been delayed for several years. Mandatory it will depend on how serious treatment methods will treat the patient.
The main difference between the TB of any kind is considered the fact that his bacteria can develop a high resistance both to antibiotics and to many drugs antituberculosis character.
A properly structured diet is of great importance to the healing process was the most effective. Should include the most vitamin-rich foods, eat more fruits and vegetables, dairy products and fish. Food should be balanced, but further enriched with a portion of protein and minerals.
Surgical intervention is applicable for the complete elimination of the abscess, when he begin to integrate healthy bodies. There are the following types of operative treatment of tuberculosis of this type:
- the endoprosthesis;
- resection of the joints;
- intra-articular necrectomy, as well as some other types of operations.
Selection of the type of intervention is carried out only by a specialist, which is based on the characteristics of the disease and the degree of destruction of the joint.
Often in tuberculosis of the spine arise and complications that can significantly complicate the life of the patient. In such cases you will need additional treatment to hold the same and measures to prevent complications.
The most common diseases can be identified in the following list:
- secondary immunodeficiency;
- back disorders anatomical and functional nature;
- complexity in the work of organs of small pelvis.
Preventive methods are especially important in order to further not cause the repetition of the disease. Should be timely to relax, to avoid excessive overloads. It is also necessary to prevent hypothermia, maintain a healthy lifestyle, boost immunity, eat well and avoid injury.