Tuberculosis of the spine: causes, symptoms, treatment
Tuberculosis of the spine is a chronic disease characterized by specific infiltration of bacteria into the vertebrae through the General circulation. Pathology is accompanied by pain in the back, as is the process of destruction of the bodies of these vertebrae. If time does not begin treatment, the spine is deformed completely.
Tuberculosis of spine (tuberculous spondylitis) ranks first among all varieties of osteo-articular tuberculosis. More often this disease affects men (55%) than women (45 %). Place the spread of tuberculosis, usually thoracic or lumbar. If a person has TB bacteria affects the spine, bone and joints, he is diagnosed with tuberculosis of the bones. From the primary lesion through hematogenous ways the disease spreads to the bone. Often this disease develops in children under 10 years.
Tuberculosis of the spine develops at the ends of joint bones, and then affects the synovium destroys the articular cartilage. As a rule, the disease is long. It has pronounced symptoms, but many people ignore them and come to the doctor when the disease has caused complications.
Characteristics and types of the disease
The disease is characterized by the following symptoms: limited mobility, ongoing back pain, atrophy of soft tissue and swelling at the place of the diseased joint. Full recovery occurs only when the treatment was initiated at an early stage of the disease. In the last stages of the disease cartilage and bone tissue is already badly damaged, which requires surgical intervention.
In tuberculosis of the spine affects the two vertebrae (in 70% of cases) and more (in 20% of cases of). The initial stage is characterized by the lesion of a vertebral body. The person will not be disturbed by severe pain, and to identify the pathology is possible only with imaging. Progressive TB is spread outside of the vertebrae that is accompanied by chronic pain, limitation, narrowing of the intervertebral space and the displacement of the bodies of adjacent vertebrae.
There are two types of tuberculosis of the spine: synovial and bone tuberculosis. The most common of these is the synovial spondylitis. The infection is located in the articular end of the bone. Pathology gradually affects the cartilage the joints and the synovium. Thus the destruction of the entire joint.
The symptoms of the disease at initial stage is characterized by mild pain in the affected spinal section. Signs of the disease are rare. The patient they have difficulties in movements, it becomes difficult to climb, there is a need for support. Many people do not pay attention to frequent back pain and explain it to everyday fatigue. But it is pain in the spine indicate the risk of developing tuberculosis.
To diagnose a special survey, which includes an x-ray. Despite the fact that this disease affects everyone, they are sick more often children, and the risk groups are children under the age of 5 years. As for treatment, it must be comprehensive. A major challenge in tuberculosis — reduce inflammation. Therefore, assigned to antibacterial treatment, which includes a variety of drugs. In some cases, surgery is recommended.
A distinctive feature of tuberculosis is the hump, which appears to cause destruction of the vertebrae and spinal deformity. If a hump is formed, then the patient is destroyed 2 vertebrae, or more.
The stage of the disease
The disease progresses for a long time, the symptoms in the first stage worn. Basically a sick child will complain of fatigue and intermittent pain in the affected area. It stops a lot of walking, playing and doing any movements that cause discomfort.
The next stage is characterized by acute pain in the back, to bend and unbend becomes a problem. Sometimes in tuberculosis of observed dysfunction of the bladder and rectum. You can also see the progress of the curvature which is most pronounced at the final stage. Remember that this disease is severe it leads to death, so in no case do not hesitate with treatment. Doctors strongly advised not to self-medicate as this may only aggravate the situation.
There are usually, the 5 stages of tuberculosis of the spine:
- Stage 1 — primary osteitis;
- Stage 2 — the spondyloarthritis without any dysfunctions of the spine;
- Stage 3 — the spondylitis progresses, forming defects in the affected spinal unit;
- Stage 4 — chronic spondylitis tuberculous nature;
- Stage 5 — posttuberculosis spondiloarthrosis.
The causes of tuberculosis include getting specific for mycobacteria in the body. As a rule, is infected a healthy person through airborne droplets. First, the infection enters the lungs and then moves it (in some cases it is deposited in the lungs).
It is possible that people will catch this disease in contact with the patient. It is especially dangerous to be near a man, who has an open form of tuberculosis. Possible contamination through the digestive tract. Mycobacteria trapped in the body through the blood that can spread to the bones, which leads to tuberculosis of the bones.
There is a special vaccination against tuberculosis (BCG), which although not fully protect the baby from infection, but would considerably lessen the severity of the disease and protects against severe forms of the disease, resulting in death. It should be done few times in my life, especially under adverse environmental conditions.
What triggers the disease
As it turned out, the main causes of tuberculosis of the spine are different spinal injuries, Smoking, excessive load on the spine, weak immune system, hypothermia, any concomitant diseases, late treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, if a person has any spinal injury, it is recommended to be screened for the presence of spondylitis.
About the dangers of Smoking has been said a lot, and it is worth Recalling that cigarettes provoke the development of many diseases, including tuberculosis. Especially often affects the lungs toxic substances destroy this vital organ. Here may develop pulmonary tuberculosis, which later develops into the spondylitis of the spine Department (usually breast). Lifting heavy loads also negatively affects the health of the spine — load can damage the spine, which is the cause of the chronic inflammation.
If we talk about one cause of the disease — weakened immune system, then keep in mind that tuberculosis with an open form — it is highly contagious disease. Therefore, strengthen your immune system balanced nutrition and regular exercises. Avoid hypothermia. Especially men, as they can develop several diseases (prostatitis, and tuberculosis).
If you have a cold or you have discovered a flu, try not to carry the disease on their feet. In order to avoid complications diseases of any kind is necessary to cure to full recovery under the supervision of a doctor.
How is the treatment of tuberculosis of the spine? As already mentioned, the insidiousness of the disease consists in the fact that in the first stage, symptoms are nonspecific and worn. Sometimes you may experience fever up to 37,5°C. the patient felt a constant weakness and fatigue even with minimal physical activity. In rare cases, there is irritability. If struck by only one vertebra, the pain is not very concerned person. To determine the affected area impossible because it hurts in several places. Pain after exercise and subsides during rest.
Remember that tuberculosis of bones develops slowly, but steadily affecting a single vertebra, the disease destroys the second.
At the next stage the pains change their character (they become frequent and intense). They appear regardless of the load and posture of the person. No painkillers can not help. The limitation is one of the major signs of tuberculosis. The patient becomes difficult to perform any movement (bend, rotate torso). The muscles begin to ache with pressure, on the progressive stage, the temperature may rise to 40°C. Then forms a bulge on the back (hump), which is gradually increasing. At the final stage, the back will become curved.
As a rule, the treatment should be long and complex, it is held stationary. To achieve full recovery, you need to be treated. Wellness policy includes unloading of the spine. The patient must comply with bed rest, do special exercises. Some procedures are done in the presence of a physician. Corset from gypsum is considered an integral part of the treatment, so be sure to wear it in the produced schedule. A special bed will be a useful addition to the corset.
Treatment of tuberculosis of the spine involves taking medications that will reduce inflammation and destroy specific bacteria. Don’t forget about diet: it needs to be balanced and nutritious. Special attention should be given to the squirrel. It is advisable to get out in the fresh air, but not to give excessive load on the spine.