What causes instability of the knee joint: symptoms, treatment
Causes and treatment of instability of the knee joint
People in the waking state spend regular time on my feet. Therefore, it is very important that the muscles and joints of the lower limbs was healthy.
Instability kapsulirovannaja apparatus of the knee leads to the fact that the attenuation function and supports the lower extremities is lost.
The pathological process is ongoing and involves bony structures of the knee joint. This can lead to disability.
Difficulties in diagnosis are that the disease cannot be diagnosed without a careful examination of the affected limb at rest and movement.
If severe swelling occurred during the first day, this indicates a haemarthrosis and swelling of the joint, continuing more than a day, talking about what happened the synovial effusion.
At the time of damage you can hear a «click» in the joint.
A single severe trauma often leads to the separation of the meniscus from the capsule. Strong muscle control in many cases does not recognize the pathology in the early stages, and people go to the doctor, when the situation has gone too far.
What types and degree of deviation are there?
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On instability of the knee joint indicates hypotension and subsequent gradual atrophy of the quadriceps femoral muscle.
Depending on the stage of developing pathology there are several degrees of joint instability. Especially brightly it is manifested in athletes who regularly attend training.
A thorough physical load on the knee becomes a cause of pain, and a person is forced to limit physical activity or even leave the training.
There are such degrees of instability of the knee joint:
- mild (belieberboy and femoral joint surfaces offset from each other by 5 mm, the capsule is partially damaged, the relaxation of the ligaments is minimal)
- the average degree, when the difference ranges from 5 to 10 mm (severe damage to the cruciate ligaments);
- severe, when the rate of displacement exceeds 10 mm (rupture of the anterior or posterior cruciate ligament, or both).
In many cases, instability of the knee joint is more convenient to calculate not in mm and in degrees.
Mild a measure of the displacement does not exceed 5 degrees, the average is 5 to 8 degrees, heavy — more than 8 degrees.
Types of violations:
- front (damaged anterior cruciate ligament);
- rear (impaired function of the posterior cruciate ligament);
Subspecies of instability of the knee:
- simple or single-plane (easy, 1 corresponds to the degree of damage);
- complex or multi-planar (formed severe instability, with 2 and 3 degrees of the disease);
- compensated (motion foot loose, without pain, periarticular muscular system firmly holds the knee, some inflammation easily docked);
- subcompencirovanna (after significant physical overload may feel aches and pains in the joint, oporosposobnosti reduced claudication appears after long walking or running, pain alone is not docked);
- decompression (bearing on the injured leg without any supports causes great pain, the leg in the knee region swells, the muscles atrophied).
What causes instability of the knee?
Causes of pathological conditions of the knee:
- dislocations of the tibia and of the patella;
- a strong blow to the knee joint (injury is possible in the fall);
- congenital underdevelopment and the weakness of the ligamentous apparatus.
- sudden extension and flexion.
Feet are often injured in athletes involved in running, football, hockey, skiing.
Frequently the instability is manifested after a car accident.
Symptoms and diagnosis of the injury
In the first hours after injury there is sharp pain, severe swelling of the knee, limited mobility of the joint.
Diagnosis is difficult. Immobilization of the limb for several days can reduce the severity of symptoms of instability of the knee joint.
A thorough examination of the affected limb.
The patient is assigned to:
- radiographic diagnosis of instability of the knee joint (by the pictures you can assess the condition of injured tissues, to make sure that there is no intra-articular fracture);
- MRI of the knee (gives details about the nature and extent of the injury).
Testing is conducted after it has passed the acute period of the disease, the swelling of tissues is reduced, and mobility has begun to recover.
Tests Mac and Houston are used in cases of suspected rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. Test «back drawer» reports of injury to the ligaments of the back.
Bending and unbending the patient’s limb, creating a forced rotation, the doctor can assess the degree of displacement of the knee relative to each other.
What is the treatment prescribed?
With 1 and 2 degrees of instability of the knee joint damage to the patient is shown conservative treatment, including:
- immobilize the limb with splints
- the use of bandages and splints;
- the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
- physiotherapy (electrophoresis, UHF-therapy, etc., providing a tonic and restorative effect on the tissues);
- cryotherapy (treatment with cold);
- massage (improves blood circulation, acceleration of metabolism and cell regeneration);
- a special complex of physical exercises (recovery of joint mobility, increase muscle strength).
Surgical intervention is often the only way out of the situation when rupture of ligaments.
To restore the ligaments arthroscopy is used when through 2 tiny incisions, the surgeon restores the integrity of damaged tissues.
After the operation is followed by a long course of therapy including massage, exercise therapy and other methods, allowing about 6 to 8 months to regain previous mobility of the affected limb.
The threat of complications
If you do not take urgent measures for treatment, insufficient stabilizing function of the ligaments leads to further displacement of joints relative to each other.
A person is forced to control every step, because any wrong move can result in serious injury and hospitalisation.
It’s not just about athletes, but about ordinary people, which, if instability of the knee have to constantly protect the limb from excessive loads and even regular walking.
Often patients have weak legs after climbing the stairs and the abrupt change sitting posture to the standing position.
How to prevent trouble?
Preventive measures include the use of special orthopedic shoes for people suffering from flat feet.
In choosing boots, shoes, sneakers need to focus not on price but on quality. Fortunately, the variety of models allows to choose the shoes, locking foot in the correct position.
During sports you should protect the knee bandages.
Running and other workouts, during which the ligamentous apparatus of the knee was increased load, will have to change to more gentle sports such as swimming, Cycling etc.
We must give priority to exercises, developing and coaching quadriceps.
Daily diet should include foods rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium and other beneficial substances, activates metabolic processes in the body and ensure proper functioning of bone tissue.
The way of life of the patient is fundamental to the elucidation of the causes of the disease and the correct treatment. Athletes who train strenuously for many years, it is difficult to accept the fact that sport in the past. But, alas, reality is different.
Instability of the knee joint — not a sentence, but to chance disturbing symptoms do not leave, because the consequences are very serious impact on the whole organism.
The disease can be successfully treated in the early stages, so timely access to a physician allows you to continue to live a full and complete life.