What is a bone cyst: types, symptoms, causes and treatment

Diagnosed bone cyst is not a sentence: there’s a cure

Bone diseases in most cases are represented by benign tumors.

Only in some rather rare cases are often caused by neglect of the disease, the safe progression of the disease may transform into a malignant nature and structure of tumors.

In addition to «normal» growths and inflammations of bones, a person can be diagnosed and the cyst – a cavity in bone tissue, triggered by numerous causes.

The concept and statistics

A bone cyst is a disease with a characteristic formation of cavities in bones. Such manifestations in the initial stages do not involve serious problems. The maximum that a person experiences is a small pain during movement or during exercise.

But to treat a cyst of the bone is necessary because the injury – a bruise or a fracture – can lead to serious consequences, up to complete removal of the damaged part.

The reason for the formation of voids described is a violation of intraosseous circulation, localized to one bone.

Through reasons occur destructive changes in collagen and proteins that would give rise to bone cysts, which in medicine usually attributed to tumor-like diseases.

According to the statistics of bone cysts occur in children aged 10 to 15 years. As for bone lesions in adults, such cases are rarely recorded. The majority of patients are people aged 20 to 30 years.

Causes, factors and risk groups

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The reasons that caused the violation of intraosseous circulation, is still not revealed.

Experts make the assumption that the formation of the cavity is affected by a lack of nutrients and oxygen.

In connection with the lack of useful components in the bone tissue the activation of lysosomal enzymes, leading towards themselves aggressive, which causes fluid accumulation.

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These enzymes effect in the future on the growth of the cavity. But to explain the factors behind all these developments, specialists in precision can’t.

It’s also been suggested that the circulation affected by the injuries – bruises and fractures.

Some experts even find such statements, explanation and evidence. The result is that at risk children and young people who were injured.

Risk group of children can be based on the banal poor nutrition, because the lack of microelements and other beneficial substances leads to disruption of the activities of the whole organism (in which the disease will manifest disadvantage unknown).

The types of pathology

There are the following types.

Depending on the localization of the cyst is to:

  • humerus;

  • femur;
  • tibia;
  • calcaneal cysts.

Depending on the fill substance, the bone cyst may be:

  • solitary – filled with fluid, occurs in children (ratio of cases in boys in relation to girls 3:1), striking a large bone;
  • aneurysmal – filled with blood, affects mostly girls and young women aged 10 to 20 years, are most susceptible to the formation of cysts of the spine.

Depending on localization and type of physicians appointed appropriate treatment.

Symptoms of pathology

Oddly enough, but the bone cyst in a long time may show no signs of existence. This is due to the slow course of the disease.

Sometimes the first sensation of pain can take several years to process the activation of lysosomal enzymes.

The first signs of the present cysts become severe attacks of pain, aggravated by movement or exercise. At rest, the patient can not feel discomfort.

Further, a person feels such features as:

  • swelling and tenderness of the soft tissues over the affected area of bone that is detected at palpation;
  • in the development process it is possible to observe the dysfunction of surrounding joints;
  • palpation in the process of growth of cysts observed increase in the affected region of the bone;
  • if the bone is close to skin, it is possible to observe the deformation of the cyst palpation;
  • in neglected cases revealed signs of damage to spinal nerves.

If a person feels one of the symptoms, he should immediately contact the doctor.

The complex of diagnostic techniques

Turning to the doctor, the patient will pass a number of examinations, which together will help to establish the nature of further treatment.

Here we use the following diagnostic methods:

  1. Radiography – allows you to define modifications in human bone and also to determine the size of cysts, and their localization.
  2. Computed tomography and MRI provide the opportunity to find out the degree of damage and depth of the damaged bone tissue.
  3. Puncture – a fence made of the contents of the cyst with the aim to study it in the laboratory and to determine the nature of tumors.

The result of the diagnosis, specialists prescribe treatment.


Treatment of bone cysts is carried out by several methods, which depend directly on the nature and course of disease.

More importance is also the age of the patient.

Of course, the child’s treatment comes down to conservative method of eliminating tumors.

Only in rare cases, resort to surgical intervention.

Conservative treatment entails the following steps:

  1. In the presence of a fracture the patient is in the splint and plaster. Favorable situations require reducing the load on the affected bone.
  2. The following is the course of therapeutic LPS. The surgeon injects the cyst, two large needles: one intended for the abstraction of the contents of the neoplasm, and the second needle introduces the medicine. Such puncture to make a full recovery every three weeks. The drug is injected into the cyst depends on the age of the patient.
  3. In the case of closure of the cavity of the patient begins to undergo various fisioterapi and resorted to medical gymnastics.

This treatment can last about a year. If conservative method for eliminating the cyst did not come, and for several months no improvement was seen, the experts decide on the surgery to remove the affected bone, and subsequently replaced with a suitable implant.

Complications and prognosis

Complications of delayed treatment to the doctor with complaints of pain are reduced to a significant increase of the cyst.

The postoperative period can be complicated because of the lack of professionalism of the doctor who performed the surgery – carrying out incomplete resection of the affected area.

According to the forecasts of kids recover faster after the treatment of bone cysts and constitute about 90% of all reported diseases. They rarely relapses than adults – their forecast is only 60-70% of all cases.

Preventive measures

About prevention can not speak, as experts still have not identified the causes of the presented disease.

Doctors advise young parents to carefully monitor the growth of the spine of your baby. Protect him from injury because they can cause the formation of aneurysmal cyst and it is difficult to treat.

Care of yourself and your children can save you from many problems and serious diseases with the bones. Feed your baby healthy food, stick to a balanced diet, take vitamins regularly and go through annual screening for early detection of pathology.