What is a cervical rib: causes, symptoms and treatment of pathologies in humans

What to do if the extension of a cervical rib prevent to live

Cervical rib is an additional fibrous formation of small size.

This anomaly is diagnosed in 0.5% of healthy people, but only in 10% of cases it is accompanied by any symptoms.

As a rule, signs of disease appear only in elderly patients in the form of drooping shoulders or pulling down of the hands. In any case, this condition requires consultation of an experienced physician.

What is it?

This syndrome is the formation of solid bone, which is localized in the cervical spine. This education may have different sizes.

In some people it is a minor bone growth, while others like full-fledged extra edge.

Sometimes a child is born with an extra rib in the cervical spine. This condition usually does not pose a threat to health and life.

But if education will pinch the nerve, you may experience pain and tingling in the hand. As a rule, these manifestations occur with aging of the body.

Extension of a cervical rib with the same frequency meet with one or two sides. Furthermore, this disease is significantly more common in women than in men – the ratio is about 85:15.

What happens in pathology?

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If cervical ribs are of impressive size, they can significantly change the anatomical structure of the neck.

Sometimes such education put pressure on the nerves of the neck, leading to severe pain. The discomfort may radiate to the arm.

If there is a failure of the upper extremities, movements become awkward. You may also experience a feeling of weakness, cold or gravity.

The cause of the abnormality

At the initial stage of development of the embryo, there are 29 pairs of ribs. Of them left afterwards is only 12, the rest are reduced. If the process of the formation of the embryo is broken, there may be cervical ribs.

They usually have in the region of the seventh or eighth cervical vertebrae.

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The degree of development of the disease

On the basis of classification, which in 1969 was proposed by V. A. Gruber, there are several degrees of extension of the cervical ribs:

  1. First degree – in this case, the edge does not go beyond the transverse process, located near the first thoracic vertebra.
  2. Second degree – the edge of beyond these boundaries, however, does not reach the cartilage region of the first thoracic rib.
  3. Third degree – the fin reaches to the sternum, and is connected to it by ligaments.
  4. Fourth degree – the structure resembles a cervical rib thoracic ribs and has a direct connection to the sternum.

As klassificeret additional ribs?

Depending on the localization of extra cervical ribs, they are one — or two-sided. The latter have different values and vary in intensity of symptoms.

The clinical picture is directly influenced by degenerative processes that occur in the surrounding soft tissues.

There are also true and false ribs. In the first case, education has a head, body and neck.

In addition, through the rib-vertebral joint it is connected to the transverse process. False ribs thus represent a joint body of the rib and the transverse process. This may be a syndesmosis or synostosis.

In addition, additional edges are complete and incomplete.

In the first case, they are similar to the present edge and when placed on the seventh vertebra are connected by a cord with the first thoracic rib.

Partial rib has a free end in the soft tissues. Sometimes it can be connected with the first thoracic rib with fibrous strand.

The clinical picture

The symptoms of this anomaly is influenced by anatomical features of the rib and its relationship with the neurovascular bundle.

Often the extension rib compresses this part of the body, which causes discomfort.

Usually, the anomaly is accompanied by swelling of the bone consistency, which can be seen or detected through probing.

Often this education is taken for tumor growth.

Disorders of the nervous system disorders at the beginning remind sensitive areas.

In this case experiencing pain, cold in the limbs, paresthesia, and sometimes itchy. In the subsequent development of pathology, the muscles lose their strength, develop their atrophy.

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The appearance of circulatory problems is compression of the subclavian artery. This may provoke not only an incremental edge, but anterior scalene muscle.

In the end weakens or disappears, the pulse at the radial artery. There is often thrombosis. In children, torticollis is sometimes formed.

When this symptom recommended x-ray examination to exclude the presence of additional ribs.

Diagnosis of anomalies

To identify compression of the artery, diagnosis of the symptom of Adana.

For this the patient should sit down, put your hands on your knees, carry a deep breath, raise his chin and deploy it toward localization of the pathology.

As a result of changing pressure and reduce heart rate to judge the compression of the artery.

Not to mention, a symptom Manuilova, which is the development of a thick neck with a split to the bottom and increasing the anteroposterior diameter.

In addition, a continuation of the neck are low drooping shoulders. Often above the collarbone the doctor managed to find the extra cervical rib. With pressure on him experiencing pain and paresthesia in the upper limb.

During diagnosis considerable importance is given to instrumental methods of research. These include the following:

  • radiography;
  • rheography;
  • sonography;
  • magnetic resonance imaging.

What to do and how to treat?

If the extra rib does not cause discomfort, the person may not seek medical help.

In case of any claims necessary to provide rest to the neck, arm and shoulder girdle.

When you need medical help

Many people wonder in which cases it is necessary to consult a doctor.

A visit to a specialist should not be delayed if you notice pain in the bones. Also a signal for a visit to the doctor is the swelling or soreness of the skin in the area of the bone.

It is very important to inform the specialist about visible changes in posture or loss of height.

In identifying this defect shows the use of medicines which help to reduce the spasm of the scalene muscle.

In addition, your doctor may prescribe remedies that contribute to the expansion of blood vessels and resorption of scar tissue.

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In some cases it is necessary to use a retaining bandage for the hand. Very useful massage and medical gymnastics. Also often used electrophoresis with novocaine, lydasum, potassium iodide.

If there are symptoms of compression of the subclavian artery, conservative therapy is unlikely to yield tangible results.

When you see the seal on the edge should go to the doctor – not necessarily this process is associated with the formation of additional ribs.

Indications for surgery

The goal of surgery is the removal of additional edges. Usually the surgery is performed under General anesthesia in the thoracic unit.

The procedure involves removal of the anterior scalene muscle, which is implemented with first and second degree of pathology. If a person has discovered the third or fourth degree, you must perform additional resection of the cervical rib.

For the operation typically use the supraclavicular access. In more rare cases, it shows the axillary access. In most cases such interventions have positive results.

Complications and prognosis

If time does not treat the anatomic defect may occur as poststenotic aneurysmal widening of the artery located below the clavicle. In some cases it is possible to find in the area of the supraclavicular fossa.

This pathology can lead to the formation of thrombi and emboli in the distal area. Also often develops acute venous thrombosis.

Plus cervical ribs are anatomical defect which in most cases does not cause discomfort.

If the symptoms of the pathology has appeared, you should immediately consult a doctor. Without adequate therapy, the disease can lead to complications. In some cases, there is a need for surgical intervention.