What is oligodactylia: definition, causes, treatment, photos of abnormal limbs
What is oligodactylia: causes and treatment of anomalies
Anomalies of the congenital nature brush observed in most cases all anomalies of the upper limbs. At the moment scientists dressed polydactyly, syndactyly, oligodactyly and other deformations of the hand and fingers.
The rarest of these is oligodactylia. It is a decrease in normal number of fingers instead of five on the brush develop 2 or 3 fingers.
However, they can be spliced or immature, and the brush split. The performance of its functions depends on the degree of the defect. In most cases,this anomaly is symmetric and inherited.
Causes and risk factors
The reasons for the development of oligodactylia are divided into two groups. The first group includes congenital anomalies of the hand in the child’s parents. In this case, the probability of the birth of a baby suffering from a similar anomaly is extremely high.
Other endogenous factors (the»overripeness» of germ cells, endocrine diseases of parents, or age greater than 35 years) is also related to the reasons entailing congenital anomalies.
The second group includes negative effects on a pregnant woman, i.e. exogenous factors. If the period of gestation the mother abuses alcohol or Smoking, it will affect the baby’s health.
This group includes the and severe infectious diseases transferred during pregnancy, constant exposure to harmful chemicals, UV rays, radiation, etc.
For this reason, the risk group includes pregnant women living in unfavorable territories with a poor environment. Residents face oligodactylia more often than people from small settlements.
Symptoms from embryo to birth
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Oligodactylia — a embryopathy, i.e., failure of the embryo from the moment of its fixation to the uterine wall until the formation of the placenta, causes malformations of individual organs.
Since the embryonic period is the formation of major organs, most congenital anomalies appear exactly in this period of time.
Critical periods, that is, the phase of intensive development of certain organs when they are most susceptible to determine the degree of manifestation of the defect after birth.
Oligodactylia is characterized by shortening of the first and second finger of the hand, a violation of the normal shape of the thoracic spine, a complete absence of the radius, anomalies in the development of the kidneys.
Sometimes, it can be identified malformations of the fibula lateral parts of the foot.
After the birth of the child specialists using x-rays ascertain malformation of the facial skeleton or underdevelopment (absence) of radiation elements of the brush.
Prenatal diagnosis has tremendous opportunities for the diagnosis of congenital heart defects, which allows to increase the efficiency of their control. The main method of diagnosis is ultrasound, which is conducted on three main levels:
- A General obstetric ultrasound that is performed by doctors of female consultations. At this stage the compliance or noncompliance of the fetus the required standards.
- Specialized prenatal ultrasound, which is performed in medical schools and medical centers, devoted to genetics. Its purpose is to clarify information about abnormalities identified in the first stage. Often, the preliminary diagnosis may be revised after a special ultrasound.
- Expert prenatal ultrasound necessary to determine the final diagnosis and develop effective treatment. At this level, use the most modern methods of diagnosis and invasive techniques. The results of studies generally analyzes the whole staff of doctors.
If ultrasound examination revealed surgical pathology of the fetus, then the last word rests with the doctor surgeon neonatologist, which determines the nature of the defect: modifiable or non-modifiable.
In the latter case, experts recommend to terminate the pregnancy.
Treatment of oligodactyly can be conservative or operative. In the first case, experts prescribe therapeutic procedures, such as thermal interaction, massage with stretching and redressable skin.
With their help, preventing further progression of the disease and due to which the patient is prepared for surgery. Can also be used correcting bandages are designed to create pressure and tension in region of the brush with a view to its fixation in the necessary position.
The main place in the restoration of function in congenital defects of the brush belongs to surgical intervention, which to date can not be called perfect, despite the success of microsurgical techniques.
There is no consensus concerning the age limits of surgical treatment is not determined by its most effective methods, but its relevance cannot be denied. Often quick correction of start with 7-8 years, but in some cases it can be done earlier.
The choice of method of surgery depends on the progression and shape of the anomaly. The anomaly can be eliminated through the most complicated of plastic surgeries, such as transplants finger from the other limbs (legs). Operation of Nicoladoni is used to eliminate the defect of forefinger.
In some cases, a procedure using Filatov stem, which is inserted in the bone or acrobatby phalanx. After surgery as they grow older it is necessary to conduct an additional correction of the deformity.
Congenital anomalies of the brush is a serious pathology that requires a responsible approach to the choice of treatment method, meticulous operating techniques and intensive rehabilitation.
Each stage should be carried out under the supervision of experienced specialists in specialized medical offices. During surgical intervention is required to resolve all deformation simultaneously, as this technique brings the best result.