What to do if you sprain foot: first aid and treatment
How to identify and treat a sprained foot?
Sprain of the foot is damage to the tissues in the corresponding area of the leg which usually occurs with the outer side.
Very often this is due to weakening of the ligaments because of a sedentary lifestyle. Also, such problems often occur in athletes, but due to the excessive load on the ligaments.
However, «stretching» is not the proper term for this violation.
By themselves, the bundles consist of fibers of two types:
- elastic (responsive actually for elasticity);
- collagen (provides strength of ligaments).
It should be noted that the ligament is actually not so stretchy, that it was just «stretching», even at very high loads. In fact, in this situation there is a rupture of ligaments of the foot.
Thus, the severity of damage is determined by the number affected by the injury of tendons and fibers. When this kind of muscle injuries always remain intact.
Anatomy of the foot and ankle
The stop is part of the musculoskeletal system of the human body. Its structure is quite simple – it consists of bones, ligaments and muscles:
- Bones are the Foundation frame.
- Cords perform the connection function. They lock and hold the bones in a certain position, forming the actual joint, and to a certain extent creates limitations in movement.
- Muscles attach to different bones and surround them. Those that are attached to the stop start is much higher – in the region of the tibia.
The ankle joint consists of the bones of the tibia and talus and is a hinge form.
By itself, it is formed by three groups of ligaments – the anterior and posterior talofibular and calcaneal-fibular ligaments:
- The first group includes the internal ligaments that connect the small and the tibia.
- The second group is formed by the deltoid ligament, namely the internal and the external surface.
- To the third group belong the heel and talofibular ligament located on the outside of the ankle. The last group of bundles of the most vulnerable and prone to injury.
Cause of injury
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The main cause of the sprain the foot is in the first place, its anatomical structure.
System ankle joint is small, but it accounts for quite a serious load.
Bundles in this case have a very important role, because not only limit the bones, but also provide a free (to a certain degree) the movement in different directions.
In addition, performing the function of limiting joint, they protect him from various injuries, however, if the load exceeds that which they can withstand, it turns out the last deformation – stretching or, in the worst case, rupture.
As already mentioned, the main reasons for stretching are excessive load.
But it is worth noting the role of a sedentary lifestyle – it leads to the fact that the ligament is inelastic, and they are much easier to damage.
In addition, the reasons can be:
- too much activity;
- uncomfortable shoes;
- carrying heavy loads;
- bruises on a variety of items;
- congenital factors;
- as well as some infectious diseases and metabolic disorders.
Aren’t hard to discern
The most important symptom in sprains of the foot is pain in its outer part. While the damaged area may swell a little, there is a hematoma.
As a result, the process of walking becomes difficult because of the pain one can not fully rely on the leg.
Stands out 3 degrees of stretching, which are determined by the number of broken fibers and tendons, as well as degree General disorders joint:
- A sprain of the first degree is characterized by a slight rupture of some fibers. Such tension is accompanied by moderate pain, perhaps a little swelling or lameness. In General, the foot remains fully and completely workable.
- The second degree of stretch is a more significant gap fibers, although the chords themselves also remain intact. Walking becomes difficult, there are quite severe pain, there are bruises.
- At the third stage, the integrity of one or more ligaments is disrupted. Such injuries often accompany fractures, in particular fractures of the foot and ankle. There is a strong pain, swelling in the joints accumulates the blood. Completely lost the ability to move independently. In addition, the stop would not stay in the joint becomes too mobile to loss of control.
Because the torn ligaments of the foot can be considered a sprain of the third degree, to distinguish simply enough.
However, for complete reliability, the diagnosis should definitely consult with a doctor and x-rays. Easy same a sprain can be diagnosed by external signs – swelling, bruising of the affected area, pain.
First aid for sprain of the foot must be provided promptly.
First and foremost, you need to remove the shoes and release foot. Otherwise, the leg will swell, and access to the affected area will be blocked.
Next, you should lock the foot in position at right angles to the shank and to impose a pressure bandage. The function of tight bandages is to ensure the impossibility of movement of the foot.
To stop inflammation and minimize pain, you need to put something on it. As soon as the first medical aid is rendered, it needs to be taken to the doctor.
Treatment depends on the severity of the injury. In serious cases, surgical intervention is required. If the sprain is minor enough to do therapeutic methods.
The most common means of treating such injuries is a cream or gel.
These drugs contain anti-inflammatory, cooling and pain-relieving substances (menthol, diclofenac, indomethacin).
May prescription nonsteroidal preparations in different forms (tablets, injections). Then assigned to physiotherapy and therapeutic exercise to restore mobility of the joint.
Treatment of folk remedies
Among the folk treatment for the most common and effective is the real stuff, which is diluted with water to form a slurry, and applied to the injury site.
The essence of this substance is its ability to pull the blood and other liquids, removing, thus, bruising and swelling. Similar in effect and strength effect is also cabbage and raw potatoes.
A good anti-inflammatory property has raw onions combined with salt. Onion is ground to a mushy pulp, add a tablespoon of salt and wrapped in tissue, apply to the sore spot.
Rehabilitation and preventive measures
Depending on the complexity of the offence, the rehabilitation period varies from a week to a month and a half. The first time it is not necessary to be a burden on a foot, it is recommended to keep the peace.
In addition, some time is recommended to wear a tight bandage to keep the joint. Also shown is the special therapeutic exercise restores mobility.
Timely access to a doctor and take necessary measures at home to minimize or nullify any consequences.
Otherwise, you may need surgery.
The main effects should be noted that if there was a trauma of the foot, repeated her appearance is always to have in mind, because the joint in any case become more vulnerable.
The simplest thing is required as preventive methods is to practice sports, to strengthen the musculoskeletal system in General and, in particular, the ankle.
You should not place undue loading of the foot excessive activity or weight lifting. It is also not recommended too often wear high heels, so as not to provoke unnecessary time damage.
During sports, make sure that the shoes were comfortable (not wide and not narrow and, of course, the size) and supported instep of the foot.
Despite the fact that the sprain is not too serious injury (in the case of 1 and 2 degrees of severity), it is necessary to pay attention to this joint because it is one of the main pillars of human organism.
Even if the damage does not restrict movement, it can create unwanted disturbances. And of course, in case you receive this type of injury should take immediate medical action in order to avoid undesirable consequences.