What to do with dislocation of the knee joint: symptoms, treatment in home and hospital settings

First aid and treatment for dislocation of the knee joint

The knee is the largest joint in the human body in the formation of which participate Misaki thigh, the upper articular surface of the tibia and the patella (kneecap).

The knee joint consists of the joints: primary femoro-tibial and femoro-patellar.

Muscle structure and tendons that surround the knee come from the hip and thigh.

The patella is a flat oval shaped bone of small size, which are placed at the front of the knee.

In addition to the main functions of the patella, protection structures of the knee joint from damage, the patella determines the function of bending of the largest muscles of the human body – the quadriceps muscles located on the anterior surface of the thigh.

In other words, patella performs a function of transferring muscle strength of the thigh on the Shin. The functioning of the patella provide an internal and external ligament, located in the sliding groove.

The knee joint takes the weight off the whole body when walking or standing.

Peculiarities of dislocation of the knee

Dislocation of the knee – injury of the knee due to other injuries that lead to displacement of the articular surfaces of the bones, change the location of one bone relative to another and changes in its anatomic position without compromising the integrity of their structures.

When the dislocation is damage to the capsule and ligaments of the joint, disappears completely contact the upper end of the Shin bone with the lower end of the femur.

This pathology is manifested by swelling, dysfunction and deformation of the limbs.

In medical practice, the dislocations of the knee diagnosed at:

  • in which it moves the joint forward or backward because of the strong mechanical impact, knee injury or the consequence of another injury.
  • incomplete displacement of the joint occurs outside or inside;
  • closed;
  • open;
  • complicated, in which there is rupture of muscle fibers and ligaments, fracture of bony structures;
  • habitual dislocations.

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The main causes that led to this pathology include:

  • strong, direct blows to the patella;
  • a sharp reduction in the quadriceps when performing active movements;
  • falling from height to the knee joint. this kind of injury is accompanied by severe injury of the feet, which when jumping was given maximum load;
  • congenital abnormalities and anomalies. the inherent weakness of the ligamentous apparatus, in which even the most minor impact can cause injury.

Dislocation of the knee can also occur by accident, as a blow of great strength is in the front part of the body seated in the vehicle person.

The risk group also includes athletes who are engaged in power sports, participate in sprint races, marathons, high jump, Cycling.

Running and jumping can lead to stretching of structures of the ligaments and cause a dislocation of the knee.

Features symptoms

In the case of dislocation of the knee joint, depending on the location, strength and areas of damage, as well as the reasons that led to the injury of the knee can manifest symptoms of varying intensity.

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It is also important to understand that many of the signs of the dislocations, sprains and fractures of the knees in the initial stage are similar.

The characteristic clinical signs which are diagnosed with all forms of injury include:

  • sharp, severe pain in the region of the joint, which is especially evident when driving;
  • a strong swelling, swelling;
  • hyperemia of the tissues in the region of the knee joint;
  • deformation, changing the shape of the knee;
  • numbness, feeling of coldness in the leg, loss of sensation below the injury site;
  • no pulsation below the injured area;
  • reduction or total absence of joint mobility;
  • the increase in temperature.

Habitual dislocation and its features

Habitual dislocation of the knee joint occurs in the patella due to repeated, periodic slipping of the kneecap from its usual channel of the slide.

Habitual dislocation may occur after the primary injury of the patella.

Such dislocation can even occur with a minor injury, any other action, for example, when lifting weights.

Is accompanied by an unpleasant, slightly painful symptoms, discomfort, the constant loss of cups can lead to the development of osteoarthritis of the knee.

To resolve the symptom of pain, it is possible to reduce the patella.

In some cases, incomplete diagnosed habitual dislocation, which is accompanied by a sense of instability of the joints. In medical practice, such condition is called «joint instability».

The development of this disease contribute to:

  • excessive elasticity of the ligaments;
  • too high position of the patella;
  • not fusion supporting ligament of the patella after damage;
  • the flattening of the sliding ways of the femur, as it is in this region is a groove, which guides the patella.

Subluxation of the knee

The formation of the subluxation occurs in the kneecap and may occur when:

  • rupture, severe hyperextension of the ligaments that hold the Cup;
  • the weakening of the muscular structures in the thigh area;
  • incorrect anatomy of the lower extremities.

The above reasons eventually lead to unstable, the unstable position of the patella, which upon the slightest injuries, bruises, physical exertion, sudden flexion of the feet is susceptible to this disease.

The symptoms of patellar subluxation include:

  • a feeling of instability of the patella;
  • pain while making movements, usually with flexion/extension of the knee;
  • when moving you hear a crunching or clicking in the region of the patella, which occurs when abnormal sliding of the articular surfaces.

This pathology prolonged course can lead to the development of osteoarthritis and synovitis.

Congenital abnormality

Congenital dislocation of the knee is a rare, severe pathological diseases of the musculoskeletal apparatus.

This pathology is genetic and develops during the second trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, congenital dislocation of the knee diagnosed in girls.

The treatment is based on the use of operational methods.

Patellar dislocation

This pathology is quite common and can occur while running, performing sports exercises, dance injuries, sharp turns.

Patellar dislocation klassificeret:

  • habitual dislocation of the patella;
  • chronic dislocation;
  • sharp.
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The main manifestation of this pathology is the sudden, severe sharp pain, the slight increase of the knee joint in volume, step-like deformation, swelling of tissues.

Pain occur even at the slightest movement.

After injury patella is displaced to the outer part of the joint, causing sharp pain.

After a time the Cup can return to a familiar situation, but even in this case, it is best to consult a specialist.

Diagnosis of injury

To prescribe effective treatment is possible only after a comprehensive diagnosis.

Diagnostic methods include:

  • visual inspection;
  • x-rays;
  • arteriography (x-rays of the arteries);
  • checking pulse, which allows to determine the localization of the damaged areas and if there is poor circulation.

First aid

If you suspect a dislocation of the knee, it is necessary to immobilize the injured limb by means of the bus or any available tools.

When blood circulation in the foot or lower leg can try to reduce the displacement of the bones, very carefully pulling the foot along the longitudinal axis of the legs, a little conscious of the tibia in a direction opposite to its displacement.

All manipulations need to spend more careful not to accidentally cause another injury.

An injury you can apply ice or a cold compress.

In cases of suspected patellar luxation, you can give the victim anti-inflammatory drug. The victim needs to get to a clinic for an appointment with a specialist.

Therapy in a medical institution

Any treatments must pursue and assign only a medical specialist as independent attempts of repositioning of the joint can worsen the condition and lead to fractures of the articular ends.

With experience, independently reduce the joint can patients who often happens to be a habitual dislocation.

Conservative treatment of luxation of the knee joint is carried out only in a hospital.

If necessary, the surgeon holds the puncture of the knee joint, removing the accumulated exudate.

All manipulations performed under local or General anesthesia. After reduction of the knee joint and return it to the place, carried out fixation of the joint by means of immobilizer or a cast, which provide an immovability of the damaged limb.

The next stage of treatment involves a range of therapeutic and medical procedures aimed at restoring the integrity of ligaments.

In severe cases, if the injury involves the tearing of ligaments and tendons in the region of the patella, performed surgery. Performed using minimally invasive surgery using the arthroscope.

Physical therapy is also a method

In the treatment of habitual dislocation is prescribed a course of physiotherapy (physical therapy), wearing a knee-side bus. In severe cases, performed surgery to stabilize the joint.

To treat subluxation of the knee joint use conservative methods of treatment.

Patients are administered a complex of specially designed exercises which strengthen the muscle structures, ligaments of the knee joint and allow you to develop the right technique flexion-extension movements.

During treatment necessary to limit the mobility of the injured extremity to prevent surge loads on the leg, locking the limb during rest in limbo.

Patients are prescribed medication, receiving symptomatic, analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs.

Full recovery and the return of all functions occurs on the third or fourth month after the end of treatment.

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The recovery period

After treatment, the recovery period should be supervised by the attending physician. To return muscle tone, gradually begin to develop damaged leg.

Rapid healing and restoration of function contribute to:

  • massage;
  • physiotherapy techniques;
  • exercise therapy;
  • proper, balanced nutrition;
  • vitamin-mineral complexes.

Houses and walls help

At home to speed up the process of recovery from dislocation of the knee joint will help non-traditional methods of treatment.

Simple and effective folk remedies:

  1. To the place of dislocation apply compresses, lotions on the basis of medicinal herbs.
  2. Good effect gives the use of a milk compress. To do this, soaked in hot milk gauze bandage applied to the injured area for a few minutes.
  3. It is also possible to the place of dislocation for five to six hours to make the onion paste with sugar, in the proportion of 1/10.
  4. You can prepare a paste of two to three heads of garlic with Apple cider vinegar, which to use insist on for weeks in the refrigerator.

At home, you can also perform a complex of simple exercises therapeutic exercises.

Possible complications

It should be noted that the dislocation of the knee joint – a very serious injury and its consequences can be very severe.

Incorrect treatment and inappropriate therapy may lead to a complete limitation of the knee, to the emergence of permanent, aching, chronic pain.

It is therefore very important at the first symptoms and signs of this disease immediately consult a doctor, in any case not to self-medicate and to strictly comply with all recommendations and regulations of the medical worker.

Preventive measures

It is worth noting that people who adhere to a proper healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, less prone to dislocation of the knee.

Therefore, do not neglect physical activity, sports and aerobics.

To strengthen the ligaments of the knee, to improve the tone of muscular structures of the lower extremities will help your running, Cycling, gym, walking, swimming pool.

As a rule, if timely diagnosis and proper treatment, the prognosis is favorable. But keep in mind that failure to comply with medical prescriptions for rehabilitation in the future can experience pain.

It is very important to prevent re-injury to the patella or joint. After recovery, you need to wear comfortable, practical and high quality footwear that promotes proper foot position while walking.

The first time is to minimize the load on the injured limb, avoid sudden movements, exposure to cold.

If dislocation of the knee has taken a chronic form, which is accompanied by frequent, aching pain, most likely, will need surgery.