Tumor of the ovary in women: causes and symptoms

The female reproductive system is an extremely complex structure. One of the main functions it perform the ovaries in which oocytes develop, necessary for the birth of a new life. Any failure of the appendages leads to problems with conception. What may indicate alarming symptoms in women?

Pain in the ovaries as a sign of pathology

In most cases women come on reception to the gynecologist not for a routine inspection, and with specific complaints. One of the most common problems is pain ovaries. Immediately it should be noted that this uncomfortable condition can be caused by different disorders. In addition, the pain may have different localization. For example, in addition to the discomfort directly in the region of the appendages may occur pain in the lower abdomen, above pubic bone, lower back or side.

Negative condition can be triggered by a number of reasons, including:

  • The development of inflammatory processes;
  • Hormonal changes;
  • Different from the anatomical position of the uterus, the ovaries themselves;
  • Changes in the body associated with a specific phase of the menstrual cycle;
  • The presence of ovarian neoplastic processes.

The most «harmless» are the second and third reasons. In such situations, doctors state, women have mittelschmerz, do not pose any health risk. Explain pain can be release from the ovary oocytes, on the spot which should be formed a yellow body, which is a cluster of cells – sources of progesterone.

When there is insufficient formation of such education are allocated a small number of hormone, which leads to a partial detachment of the lining of the uterus mucous membrane. Such a development of events and becomes the cause of pain before menstruation.

One of the varieties is considered to be ovulatory syndrome and discomfort in the ovaries during ovulation. In this case, the release of an egg triggers are microscopic size, the anguish of the appendage followed a slight hemorrhage into the abdominal cavity. Eventually starts irritating the nerve endings, causing symptoms such as pain.

In contrast to such causes ovarian cancer in women are considered as the most dangerous factor. If you suspect the presence of appendages neoplasms as early as possible is important to carry out a correct diagnosis and start appropriate therapy. The most favorable in terms of forecast be benign ovarian tumors, but possibly the development of guidance.

An ovarian tumor as the underlying cause of poor health

As already mentioned, tumors can be benign or malignant nature. Also, such growths are hormoneproducing. The differences of these three types are the following:

  • For benign tumors characterized by low growth and absence of metastases, the inability to hit the lymph nodes;
  • To identify malignancy can be a rapid increase in the size, growth into nearby tissues, organs, metastatic spread to the blood or lymphatic stream, defeat lymph nodes;
  • Feature hormoneproducing entities is to develop them hormones.
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In some situations there may occur a degeneration of benign and malignant formations.

What linked this pathology?

Benign ovarian tumors or masses having malignant nature, can be caused by:

  1. Genetic predisposition.
  2. Early onset of menstruation or excessive delaying of the process.
  3. Stop menstrual cycle at too young an age or late start of menopause.
  4. Hormonal disruptions. Dysfunction can occur in women as in the epididymis, and the thyroid gland, and the adrenal glands.

Also the cause of tumors in women may be a wrong way of life with an abundance of bad habits.

As the disease manifests itself?

To suspect the presence of ovarian neoplastic processes is possible by the appearance of pulling or aching pain in the lower abdomen or lower back. Typically, the amplification of pain occurs after physical exertion. Pain can be felt during intimacy.

In addition to pain should pay attention to the following symptoms:

  • Irregular menstrual cycle. Especially obvious are the symptoms in the form of constant delays over weeks and significant volume of discharge;
  • The emergence of mass spotting from the genital tract in the intervals between periods;
  • Abdominal enlargement in bulk;
  • Compression of the pelvic organs, as evidenced by frequent urination or the urge to defecation. Sometimes there are phenomena of constipation;
  • The inability to get pregnant;
  • If education is a cancerous nature, may manifest symptoms associated with the spread of metastasis and formation of secondary lesions in adjacent or remote organs. In this case, you may have pain in bones, cough with hemoptysis, yellowness of the skin, headaches, impaired coordination, severe seizures. Symptomatology is determined by involved authority.

In addition to the basic characteristic features of ovarian tumors may accompany symptoms that occur in other pathologies. We are talking about tumor toxicity, which significantly reduces the level of hemoglobin, increasing erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fully or partially lost appetite, appear malaise, constant fatigue and weakness, weight is reduced.

Classification of tumors according to tissue type

Depending on the structure of education and those present in its composition there are several groups of cancer in women.

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Epithelial

Are the most common option, respond well to therapy and can take the following forms:

  1. Serous. Feature is the presence in the formation of liquid content called secret.
  2. Mucinous. Tumors are characterized by one-sided education, the essential size and mnogokanalnosti, by the presence within the slime.
  3. Endometrioid. The structure of these formations is similar to the endometrium, lining the inner cavity of the uterus. Part of the tumor contains receptors to estrogen.
  4. Dark-cell. Are extremely rare and contain dark cells.
  5. Education Gremore. Are benign tumors formed on one side and have a dense structure, is capable of producing estrogens.

Hormonally active

Such formations are called tumors from sex cord stroma. These include estrogen-producing granulosa tumor of the ovary and tecoma, the formation of which occurs during menopause, when menstrual periods stop.

Also in this group contains androblastoma, which production of male sex hormones, androgens, which leads to false premature puberty and virilization – the appearance of the female secondary sexual features characteristic of male.

Germ cell

Belong to the rare species of ekoobrazovanie and can take the form of dysgerminoma or a teratoma, which is also called dermoid cyst. They are usually diagnosed in women at a young age. The most dangerous malignant dysgerminoma.

Possible stage of development of tumors of the appendages

Tumor stage, if the formation has cancer nature, are determined on the basis of the clinical picture. At the initial stage is only the defeat of the ovary, the second stage describes the spread of education on the pelvic organs including the uterus and fallopian tube, stage 3 appear metastases within the peritoneum, regional lymph nodes. The last stage is considered to be remote metastasis formation of tumor lesions other systems and organs (most affected by the negative process of the lungs, liver and bones).

Diagnostic features

To confirm the diagnosis of ovarian cancer and determine what kind of education is the most complete clinical picture. First, information is collected about the nature of pain and their first appearance, gynecological pathologies, surgical interventions on the pelvic organs, pregnancy.

Also examined menstrual function, assesses the regularity of the cycle. A mandatory event is two-handed or bimanual vaginal examination, in which the touch is determined by the size of the uterus, adnexa, cervix and displays their ratio. Also, an assessment of the ligamentous apparatus, the mobility of the appendages, their pain.

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In the list of mandatory procedures include ultrasound of the pelvic organs and abdominal cavity, blood tests to determine hormone levels and the presence of tumor markers, CT scan or MRI, x-ray of the breast. In addition, you can assign a diagnostic laparoscopy.

Therapy options

In most cases, neoplasms in women treated by surgery. If diagnosed with benign ovarian tumors, shown adnexectomy when is removal of the ovary without affecting other organs. When there is a malignant form, performed extirpation (removal) of the uterus, both adnexa, fallopian tubes and cervix. Under this option, required further chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Hormone producing formations may be treated with hormone preparations, provided that neoplastic growths they are sensitive and the symptoms fade away on the background therapy.

How dangerous is ovarian cancer and how to prevent them?

A nodule of any nature is an extremely unpleasant phenomenon, because their possible torsion with subsequent necrosis of the tissues, degeneration of benign structures in cancer, reproductive disorders, occurrence of chronic pain in the abdomen. It is particularly important to identify malignant tumors, preventing their strong growth and metastasis.

To minimize the likelihood of developing this disease, you need to follow these guidelines:

  • It’s possible to give up bad habits;
  • To follow a healthy lifestyle, constant physical activity, proper nutrition, implying minimal use, preservation, smoked and fatty foods;
  • Taking oral contraceptives reduces the risk of formation of tumors;
  • Respond promptly to symptoms of hormonal imbalance;
  • Every six months to undergo routine examination by a gynecologist.

But even if the diagnosis of «ovarian tumor» is already set, do not despair. A favorable prognosis depends on the efficiency and timeliness of therapy, and a positive attitude. The main thing – not to miss symptoms of illness, follow your doctor’s instructions, do not delay treatment and start the process.