Types of runny nose and its symptoms: what is runny nose treatment

What is a cold?

Mucous secretions from the nose precedes the aggressive influence of endogenous and exogenous factors. Often a pathological condition associated with the penetration in the upper respiratory tract infectious agents. Negative impact on the activity of the mucociliary apparatus are allergens, medicinal drugs, atrophic processes in the sinuses, stress, environment, hormones.

Methods of arresting inflammation determines the mechanism of development, clinical signs, nature of the occurrence of rhinitis. On the basis of differential diagnosis and General examination, the otolaryngologist is an efficient recovery scheme for a particular case.

Runny nose as a protective reaction

Nasal cavity is the initial segment of the respiratory tract where the air is cleaned from impurities and pathogens, moistened and warmed. For performing the functions of the mucosa meets the top layer of the epithelium. Inner shell is formed of goblet and ciliated cells.

The data of structural-functional units ensure the generation of mucociliary clearance.

Failure of compressor mechanisms the body is not able to withstand the attack of pathogens. Localization of viruses and bacteria in nasal projection, their growth and reproduction is the root cause of the inflammatory process.

On the pathological changes of unicellular glands react active production of secretory discharge, which includes substances that inhibit the dynamism of the microbial mucin and lysozyme.

The liquid does not have time to flow out, accumulate in the sinuses, which causes swelling of soft tissue, interfere with natural post nasal cavity with the outside world.

Violation of the drainage function is manifested by nasal congestion, alleviation of the olfactory receptors, headaches, itching and burning in the nose.

Types of colds and their symptoms, methods of treatment

The view that if the snot is not treated, they will, by themselves, justified only under physiological cold. In infants is an adaptation of the respiratory system to the new conditions of the environment that is manifested by excessive production of secreted.

Nasal fluid rare consistency has no color and smell, if successful outcome of its quantity is normalized to 10-12 weeks of a baby’s life.

For reference! Idiopathic rhinitis – inflammation of the mucous membrane, in which the causal factor is not defined.

What is a cold? There is classification of disease in children and adults, which is based on the etiology of pathogens:

  • allergic;
  • neuro;
  • infectious;
  • atrophic;
  • medication.
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For the duration of the disease distinguish acute and chronic. The latter is associated with a long current inflammation that occurs with exacerbations and remissions.

Infectious coryza

Develops as a result of primary infection of the organism or in the context of chronic infection. Intensive breeding of pathogens is accompanied by a state of immunosuppression, hypothermia, contact with the media.

Note the runny nose fungal etiology when the conditions change the natural composition of the microflora aktiviziruyutsya opportunistic fungus. To provoke the clinical picture may haphazard use of antimicrobial nose drops.

Important! Catarrhal stage of the disease when the absence or incorrect treatment, constant influence of the destabilizing factor radiates to the chronic form.

At the initial stage of the disease the General condition of the patient worsens, concerned only the local symptoms. With the progression of inflammation reduces the quality of breathing, increased nasal congestion in a horizontal position.

When viral etiology mucus are colorless and odorless. The change in the concentration and color of snot from yellow to brown color with impurities of purulent exudate indicates bacterial rhinitis.

The overall clinical picture is complemented by the following features:

  • headache;
  • cough;
  • increased body temperature;
  • fever.

Infectious rhinitis responds well to medications. When severe congestion short course (3-5 days) administered vasoconstrictor drops.

To suppress the activity of pathogenic strains used antibacterial agents with complex action, with the activity of anti-inflammatory and decongestant. With the purpose of formation of the local immune system, rapid regeneration of soft tissue use homeopathic and hormonal drugs.

Allergic rhinitis

When the patient is disturbed breathing, worried about the nasal congestion, burning sensation and itching inside the sinuses, watery eyes, redness of the skin and eyes, non-productive cough, increased saliva production, there is a suspicion of allergic forms of rhinitis.

These symptoms intensify the direct effect of the antigen. On the background of pathological changes of the biogenic amine increases, causing a spasm of smooth muscles, stimulation of secretion, bronchoconstriction.

The allergenic effect of infectious substances (viruses, fungi, bacteria) and noninfectious etiologies. To last include:

  • dust;
  • spores of plants;
  • pet hair;
  • household cleaning products;
  • foods;
  • chemicals, industrial toxins.
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To identify the causative agent of the specialist allergotest, assigns a common blood test. Treatment starts with limiting exposure to the allergen that triggered the clinical picture.

Therapeutic course consists of taking antihistamines to reduce allergic reactions. To calm natural breathing is recommended irrigation nose saline nasal irrigation moisturizing products based on isotonic seawater.

Sympathomimetics required at full lock pneumatic sostav, lasting up to 5 days.

Vasomotor rhinitis

ENT disease is associated with impaired regulation of tonus in the blood vessels of nasal cavity. Swelling of the turbinates is manifested by periodic symptoms of rhinitis:

  • nasal congestion;
  • mucous secretions;
  • cough and sneezing;
  • fatigue;
  • snuffling;
  • sleep disorders;
  • alleviation of olfactory receptors.

The development of rhinitis precedes viral infections, hormonal imbalances, adverse environmental conditions, poor indoor climate, stress factors. In children the cause of pathology are razresheniya adenoid, deviated septum, dysfunction of the nervous system.

The treatment is aimed at normalization of the processes of hemocirculation. Cold therapy involves debridement of the paranasal sinuses is difficult salt compositions of minerals, use of corticosteroids and hormones in the nose long course.

Interesting! Women due to increased hormonal activity are more susceptible to non-infectious inflammation of the mucous.

For active regression of the disease carry out physiotherapy with the application of a magnetic field, nasal blockade with hydrocortisone, electrophoresis, ultrasound. In severe cases with severe atrophy of soft tissues appoint a minimally invasive method of modeling laser correction.

Drug-induced rhinitis

Haphazard use of pharmaceuticals, failure to comply with the dosage and frequency of irrigation of the mucosa, the use of medicines without prior consultation with a doctor leading to atrophy and dryness of the mucosa.

Physical dependence on vasoconstrictor drops manifests itself as macroscopic symptoms:

  • deterioration of sleep quality;
  • a nasal;
  • mucous secretions;
  • partial or complete loss of smell.

Treatment of rhinitis begins with a gradual reduction of the dose of sympathomimetic replacement by a more gentle drop. Help with drug rhinitis corticosteroids, antiallergic drugs, internal treatment Erythromycinbuy or Hydrocortisone ointment.

In addition to the basic scheme prescribed physiotherapy: acupuncture, UHF, electrophoresis. The most effective method of recovery is vasotomy submucosa of inferior turbinate.

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Atrophic rhinitis

Is characterized by a degenerative process in violation of mucosal integrity, at least the tissue structure. Of the common reasons are the value of the following factors:

  • frequent viral and bacterial infections;
  • endocrine disorders;
  • autoimmune diseases;
  • adverse environmental conditions;
  • chronic rhinitis;
  • beriberi;
  • growth of bone tissue;
  • adenoiditis.

In atrophic rhinitis the patient complains of shortness of nasal breathing, sensation of dryness in the nose, recurring nosebleeds. Runny nose is accompanied by the formation of purulent secret odor or reduction of mucus with subsequent formation of crusts.

Important! When the cause of atrophic rhinitis are adenoids, the problem is solved surgically.

Symptomatic treatment aimed at changing the consistency of snot alkalis, which are used for inhalation or intranasal administration. With the aim of improving the trophism of the mucosa that neutralize pathogens conducted antibiotic therapy, irrigation of the nose with mineral and vegetable complexes.

From physiotherapeutic procedures prescribed aeroionotherapy with thinning substances.


The common cold is rarely an independent disease. Often indicates severe pathological disorders. To correctly determine the cause of snot, write a therapeutic scheme must be clarified rhinitis.

It is always easier to arrest the inflammatory process at an early stage than to treat a chronic form, which requires more complex design methods.