Ultrasound of the ovaries in women: diagnostic features and outcome
The ovary is an important organ in the female body, because they are responsible for hormonal balance, support reproductive function, form the egg. The work of the ovarian determines the menstrual cycle. If there are any malfunctions in the body (upset the cycle, cannot get pregnant), doctors prescribe a woman to undergo an examination of the ovaries.
Ultrasound of the ovaries is very simple diagnostics, allowing to estimate the state of the body, identify their structure, the rate, volume. But how is the procedure and how to prepare for it, to get the most accurate results?
What symptoms do ultrasound of the ovaries?
After visual review of a woman’s gynecologist may advise you to undergo examination by ultrasound to assess the health status, size of the ovaries in women and learn if they are the cause of poor health and the inability of conception. Ultrasound of the ovaries is recommended under these conditions:
- irregular menstruation, delay period;
- severe pain during menstrual cycle;
- strong or Vice versa scanty bleeding during menstruation;
- spotting between cycles;
- breast pathology;
- the symptoms indicating inflammation of the ovaries;
- discomfort in the abdomen, especially the lower part;
- the suspected tumor;
- tests prior to IVF;
- dynamic monitoring of ovarian function;
- unless there is a planning to conceive;
- screening health surveillance of the female body.
It is possible to prevent a disease of the reproductive system of women, if you regularly undergo examination at the doctor. Gynecologists suggest every woman once a year to take the examination on the ultrasound machine. It can be used not only to determine the size of the ovaries in women, but also to identify the tumor and other tumors in the early stages.
Types of ultrasound and how is each survey?
To date, the examination on the ultrasound machine can hold in three different ways:
- Transabdominal – this survey is conducted through the wall of the peritoneum with the help of external sensor. This method of examination in recent times have almost forgotten and I use it very rarely, this is due to the fact that the patient it is necessary to prepare thoroughly. If it is wrong to prepare the woman, the results will be inaccurate, dimensions, volume, and structure of the ovaries will not be revealed.
- Transvaginal – the accuracy of the data in this type of ultrasound is much higher than that of transabdominal and prepare for the examination, the patient is not necessary, this method has recently enjoyed great success. The small size of the sensor is inserted through the vagina and allows you to inspect the reproductive system thoroughly.
- There is also transrectal examination, but it is used only in those cases, if you want to see a girl who still isn’t sexually active a virgin.
How to prepare for an ultrasound?
Training to diagnostics is of particular importance. Special restrictions on diet, no, this also applies to medicinal products only, the woman needs to follow a few basic rules:
Ultrasound on the ovaries is carried out only in certain days of the cycle. It is best to conduct the examination at 5-7 days after the menses.
To determine functional activity, examination is best done in the days when the doctor will prescribe, but in this case it will be possible to accurately determine the size, scope and structure of the ovaries. To accurately find the cause of infertility or hormonal failure need a month to conduct 4 studies in different phases and only on the collected results it is possible to make an accurate diagnosis.
If a woman undergoes transabdominal examination, that her bladder must be full. One hour before the scheduled procedure, the patient should drink up to 1.5 liters of water or tea. Due to a full bladder can be better to consider the condition of the ovaries. If it is not too full, it will be difficult to get accurate data.
If the patient received a transvaginal ultrasound, this diagnostic preparation is not required. The main thing you should take care of the woman before the test about personal hygiene. To protect the woman and not get her infection on the sensor put on a condom.
If you are transrectal examination, it is necessary to clean the rectum of feces. For this, before going to diagnosis the girl puts a mini enema and not eat foods that can trigger gas formation.
How do ultrasound?
Examination of the ovaries on transabdominal performed in the supine position: the patient is comfortably installed on the couch, exposing his belly and groin area. The doctor lubricates the skin of the abdomen with a gel and by touching the sensor of the abdomen, on the monitor screen looks, what are the ovaries and in what condition they are. The sensor moves across the skin with slight pressure, but the woman feels no discomfort.
When transvaginal method, the woman is also lying on the couch, slightly bent knees, this pose helps to better introduce the sensor into the uterus. The device is very thin, so any discomfort to the patient brings. The procedure lasts about 15 minutes, this time is enough to understand heterogeneous ovary or to detect the pathology or the tumor.
What the survey results are considered normal?
During the diagnosis the doctor determines the location of the ovaries, their size, structure and volume.
The ovaries should be placed on both sides of the uterus and a little behind – is the norm. Because of the fact that they adhere to the uterus, they are often called appendages. During pregnancy they are a little mixed up, that’s normal.
As for the size of the ovaries, they can be different depending on what day of the menstrual cycle diagnosis, patient’s age, number of births, abortions and characteristics of the organism. The norm for women are ready for carrying the baby:
- the volume of the ovaries should be from 4 to 10 CC;
- length about 35 mm, but not less than 20;
- width is in the range of 30, but not less than 18;
- the thickness is about 20 mm.
As shown, most women have normal size in both ovaries different, but this difference is insignificant. The presence of the disease can tell a huge difference. If sizes are increased, this may say about the polycystic or oophoritis.
Structure of the ovaries depends on what day you do the procedure: a doctor measures the dimensions, the number of follicles, whether the dominant follicle, yellow body and looks whether there are cysts or tumors.
If the structure is non-standard, it can say about undeveloped follicles late ovulation dysfunctions and diseases.
Normal sizes will depend on what day of cycle do study:
- if the survey takes place from 5 to 7 a day, the follicle must be about 10, and they are located in the cortical layer, and the sizes from 5 to 10 mm;
- 8 and 10 will be 1 dominant follicle and about 9, size 12-15 mm;
- from 11 to 14 dominant and increases in size up to 20 mm, ovulation, when it reaches the size of 18 mm;
- from 15th to 18th day there is the yellow body in place of the follicle, ready for ovulation;
- 19 and 23 the corpus luteum increases in size and reaches from 25 to 27 mm;
- 24 and 27 yellow body reduces to 10 mm;
- menstruation: yellow body leaves.
After diagnosis the doctor gives the conclusion and precisely make a diagnosis, if there is pathology or not discovered normal size or structure. He will also direct the woman to a doctor who in the future will choose the right treatment.