Viral and bacterial sinusitis: symptoms and treatment what bacteria cause

How to treat viral and bacterial sinusitis?

Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses may occur due to a viral or bacterial lesion. In the first case, the reason for the formation of the disease lies in the penetration into the organism acute respiratory infections, bacterial sinusitis develops in connection with the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms that enter in the lining of the cavity due to prolonged use of medications or the decline of the immune system.

Usually sinusitis occurs on one side of the nasal sinuses, but in acute cases the disease appears in two clauses. Okolonosovykh inflammation of the sinuses may be accompanied by copious purulent or mucous discharge, and increased body temperature and poor outflow. During the development of the disease it is important to know the symptoms and treatment of viral sinusitis, and also how to get rid of bacterial disease.

Hence the sinusitis

The main reason for the formation of a sinus infection is the penetration of pathogens into the body. The main bacteria, which develops the ailment is adenovirus, reovirus, rhinovirus infection, influenza and parainfluenza.

Cause of acute bacterial inflammation lies in the three types of bacteria:

  • pneumoniae Streptococcus;
  • hemophilic Bacillus;
  • Moraxella.

What kind of bacteria besides cause sinusitis? To cause the formation of bacterial sinus infections can Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Peptostreptococcus, Bacteroides species, fuzobakterii.

Data pathogenic organisms to cause congestion of the nasal passages, impaired respiratory function, inflammation of the upper part of the organ of respiration, the formation of large amounts of mucous secretion.

When this swelling does not free up the breathing path from the accumulated mucus, causing a feeling of pressure and pain. A combination of these symptoms and the accumulation of secretions in the paranasal sinuses and causes formation of sinusitis.

If the viral sinus infection occurs without any complications, the acute form, triggered by the formation of rhinovirus or adenovirus infection, it becomes a favorable environment for the development of the disease.

How to distinguish viral sinusitis from bacterial

To determine the nature and type of inflammation, you must consult ENT doctor, but to determine the primary form, it is sufficient to note the symptoms of the disease.

Viral form

The formation of viral inflammation of the paranasal sinuses is due to the development of pantropic virus.

During the dysfunction of the nasal cavity is a strong inflammation in the maxillary paranasal sinuses.

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The disease is accompanied by swelling, pressure between the eyebrows, sleep disturbance, poor health.

Usually viral inflammation of the paranasal sinuses is due to the exacerbation of acute viral or respiratory illness.

At this time, pathogenic microorganisms on the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. The defeat of the epithelial layer leads to swelling of the mucosa and nasal passages. The inflamed area of the cavity triggers the formation of copious amounts of mucous secretion.

The standard ailment for mucus cannot leave the nasal cavity independently, which leads to a strong swelling of the tissues.

If sinusitis is not treated, the patient may develop bronchitis, tonsillitis or laryngitis.

Bacterial inflammation

Bacterial inflammation of the paranasal sinuses proceeds much sharper than the viral form.

The symptoms of sinusitis caused by bacteria, acute and painful. The patient noted a characteristic separation from the nasal cavity.

Liquid and viscous selection find a yellow or green tone and accompanied by a sickening odor.

If in case of viral sinusitis the patient body temperature rises, when the bacterial form can be accompanied by temperatures up to 40 degrees Celsius.

Unlike viral, bacterial sinusitis becomes chronic.

Symptoms of viral disease

Viral sinusitis is considered to be the constant companion of any acute inflammation of the nasopharynx. In most cases the disease affects only one nasal cavity, but some patients when the diagnosis and conduct x-ray revealed bilateral inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. In almost all cases of the disease the patient noted swelling of the mucosa and restricted passes a large quantity of mucous secretion.

When stagnation of viscous secretions in the nasal cavity of the patient are the following signs:

  • decreased sense of smell;
  • loss of taste;
  • pain in the upper jaw;
  • high fever;
  • pain in the head;
  • wet cough;
  • bad breath and nose;
  • poor health;
  • refusal to eat.

If a child is ill, it can become very capricious or cry for no reason. In addition, the baby often touch the handles to the nasal cavity, and sleeps only on one side. On palpation, the child strongly cries indicating pain.

In the treatment of disease it is necessary to set the type of pathogenic infection. The correct definition of the nature of the sinusitis will help you avoid the bronchitis, pharyngitis and other respiratory diseases.

Drug treatment viral inflammation

How to treat viral sinusitis should be determined by the doctor. Usually, the patient is prescribed medication, which includes the following drugs in viral sinusitis:

  1. For removal of mucous secretion you need to wash the nose several times a day. For rehabilitation use saline solutions that you can prepare at home or purchase ready-made means for washing — «Bluemarine», «Aqualor», «Aqua Maris», «Humer», «no-Sol» and others. These medicines will help eliminate congestion and improve the flow of mucus. They’re harmless for patients of any age.
  2. Viral inflammation accompanied by pain, which can be removed with the help of painkillers. For removing such a sign is assigned to «Ibuprofen» or «Paracetamol». To apply the medicine must be no more than three days, and the dosage calculated on the basis of patient’s age and severity of the disease.
  3. For local application prescribed vasoconstrictor drugs in the form of nasal sprays and drops. It is best to use such medicines as «Otrivin», «Llanos», «ksimelin», «Naphazoline», «Nazivin». They will remove the tissue and restores patency of the nasal passages. Apply the drops not more than five days.
  4. In the course of treatment include the use of antiviral drugs – «Bioran», «Arbidol», «Derinat», «Kagocel». They destroy the inflammation and normalize the patient’s condition.

Antibacterial therapy in case of viral sinusitis is not needed. Uncontrolled reception of antibiotics can cause a decrease in the immune system and the formation of fungal inflammation.

The symptoms of bacterial inflammation

The symptoms and treatment of bacterial sinusitis is different from a viral inflammation.

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Among the major signs of infection of the body by bacteria is the secretion from the nose mixed with pus.

In addition, the patient gives a strong nasal congestion and pain in the front part.

Sometimes bacterial sinusitis is accompanied by unpleasant sensations between the eyebrows, as well as pain in the head part.

Other symptoms include:

  • due to postnasal drip of mucus in throat the patient is formed reflex, and coughing;
  • partial or complete loss of smell;
  • high fever, sometimes up to 40 degrees Celsius;
  • tiredness and fatigue;
  • sickening smell from the nasopharynx;
  • the pressure in the bridge of the nose;
  • poor health;
  • refusal to eat and insomnia.

Understand that the patient formed an acute bacterial sinusitis can be according to the severity of symptoms.

Complex therapy

In bacterial sinusitis, the patient needs urgent treatment with antibiotics. If no action is taken as quickly as possible, the patient will have to undergo surgical intervention.

The first thing the doctor ascertains the form of the stimulus. This will help to determine the needed medicines.

  1. After passing all tests and conducting bacterial culture test, the patient is administered antibiotics for bacterial sinusitis – «Levofloxacin», «Moxifloxacin», «Cefpodoxim», «Cefixime», «Cefuroxime». The dosage selected by the attending physician.
  2. In conjunction with antibiotic therapy, the patient is prescribed medication to reduce inflammatory response and improve well-being. Therefore, in the course of treatment includes daily washing of the sinuses with solutions that improve the expectoration of mucus and reduces swelling of tissues.
  3. In addition, the patient has to undergo drainage, which removes secretions from the paranasal sinuses.
  4. In cases of severe pain, the patient was prescribed antihistamines are needed to reduce the swelling. Welcome antiallergic drugs acquitted at the last stage when the patient already is on the mend.
  5. To reduce swelling in the lining of the patient is prescribed intranasal medications that can reduce the symptoms of the disease – «Izofra», «Polideksa», «Bioparoks». Combined drops improve the health of the patient on the second day of treatment.
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An important component of treatment is hydration of the living room of the patient and daily wet cleaning, refusal of harmful habits and proper nutrition.


Treatment of viral sinusitis takes about fourteen days and get rid of bacterial inflammation can twenty days. So if you got sick with this nasty disease, you need to make the hospital and come to grips with treatment.

During treatment, take plenty of water and follow dosing medicine.