A list of toxic gases

Types of toxic gases, their effects on the body

Poison gas is a toxic chemical that causes intoxication of the body and damage internal organs and systems. Enters through the respiratory system, skin, gastrointestinal tract.

A list of toxic gases depending on their Toxicological effects:

  1. The nerve agents – carbon monoxide, sarin.
  2. Skin-naivnye – lewisite, mustard gas.
  3. Choking is phosgene, diphosgene, chlorine.
  4. Tear – bromobenzylcyanide, chloroacetophenone.
  5. Overall impact – hydrocyanic acid, CYANOGEN chloride.
  6. Annoying – adamsite, CR, CS.
  7. Psychotomimetic – BZ, LSD-25.

Consider the most hazardous gases, the mechanism of injury, signs of poisoning in humans.

Sarin

Sarin is a poisonous liquid substance at 20 °C vapor evaporates quickly and has nerve effect on the human body. In the state of gas it is colorless and odorless, most dangerous when inhaled.

Symptoms appear immediately when hit in the respiratory tract. The first signs of poisoning – shortness of breath, constriction of the pupil.

Clinical manifestations:

  • irritation of the nasal mucosa, the liquid discharge;
  • salivation, vomiting;
  • the pressure in the chest;
  • shortness of breath, bluish discoloration of the skin;
  • bronchospasm and increased formation of mucus in them;
  • pulmonary edema;
  • severe cramping and abdominal pain.

When injected into the body of sarin vapor of high concentration is severe brain damage after 1-2 minutes. Man cannot control the physiological functions of the body – involuntary defecation and urination. Appear convulsions, seizures. Developing coma and subsequent cardiac arrest.

Mustard

Mustard mustard gas. This chemical compound of skin-blistering action. In liquid form, the substance has the smell of mustard. The body gets in two ways – by airborne droplets and by contact of liquid with skin. Tends to accumulate. The symptoms of poison appear in 2-8 hours.

Symptoms of intoxication by gas inhalation:

  • lose eye;
  • lacrimation, photophobia, feeling of sand in eyes;
  • dryness and burning in the nose, then nasal swelling with purulent discharge;
  • laryngitis, tracheitis;
  • bronchitis.

If the liquid gets into the eye, it will cause blindness. In severe poisoning with mustard gas develops pneumonia, death occurring in 3-4-th day from suffocation.

The symptoms of gas poisoning in the skin – redness, followed by the formation of vesicles containing serous fluid, skin lesions, ulcers, necrosis. The gas destroys the cell membrane, violates carbohydrate metabolism, partially destroys the DNA and RNA.

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Lewisite

Lewisite is the strongest toxic agent vapors which are able to penetrate the chemical protective suit and gas mask. Is a brown liquid, has a pungent smell. Gas refers to skin-naivnym toxic assets. Acts on the body instantly and has no latency period.

The symptoms of gas poisoning in lesions of the skin develop within 5 minutes:

  • pain and burning sensation at the site of contact;
  • inflammatory changes;
  • painful redness;
  • the formation of bubbles, they quickly opened;
  • the appearance of erosions heal a few weeks;
  • in severe cases in contact with high concentrations of lewisite produced deep ulcers.

Symptoms by inhalation of gas:

  • the mucosal nasopharynx, trachea, bronchi;
  • fluid from the nose;
  • sneezing, coughing;
  • headache;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • loss of voice;
  • a feeling of pressure in the chest, shortness of breath.

Highly sensitive to poisonous gas mucous eyes. It becomes red, swollen eyelids, increased lacrimation. The person experiences burning sensation in the eyes. If liquid lewisite in the digestive tract, the victim begins profuse salivation and vomiting. Join a sharp pain in the abdominal cavity. Affects internal organs, sharply falling blood pressure.

Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulphide is a colorless gas with a pungent odor of rotten eggs. In high concentrations the substance is very toxic. Once in the body if inhaled, symptoms of intoxication – headache, dizziness, weakness. Hydrogen sulfide is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and affects the Central nervous system.

The symptoms of gas poisoning:

  • mouth, metallic taste;
  • paralysis of the nerve responsible for sense of smell, so the victim immediately ceases to feel any smells;
  • the defeat of the respiratory tract, pulmonary edema;
  • spasms;
  • coma.

High gas content in the inspired air leads to instant death.

Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide – a colorless toxic substance, lighter than air. Getting into the body through the respiratory tract, is rapidly absorbed into the blood and binds to hemoglobin. So blocking the transport of oxygen to all the cells use the oxygen, and stops cellular respiration.

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The symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning:

  • dizziness and headache;
  • shortness of breath and palpitations, shortness of breath;
  • noise in the ears;
  • violation of visual acuity, flicker in the eyes;
  • redness of the skin;
  • nausea, vomiting.

In severe poisoning, convulsions occur. Increasing the symptoms preceding coma – falling blood pressure, severe weakness, loss of consciousness. In the absence of medical assistance death within 1 hour.

Phosgene

Phosgene is a colourless gas, different smell of rotten hay. The substance is harmful by inhalation, the first symptoms of intoxication appear after 4-8 hours. At high concentrations death occurs after 3 seconds. Carbon dioxide in the lungs, destroys them, causing instant swelling.

The symptoms at different stages of poisoning:

  1. Pulmonary edema begins to develop in the latent period when the victim is unaware of the poisoning. The first signals from the body – sweet, cloying taste in the mouth, nausea. It is sometimes vomiting. The person feels sore throat, itching and burning in the nasopharynx. Occurs cough reflex, disturbed respiration and pulse.
  2. After the latent period the condition of the victim deteriorates. There is a severe cough, the person starts to choke. Blue skin and lips.
  3. Stage a progressive deterioration in strong pressure in the chest, leading to suffocation, increased respiratory rate 70 per minute (rate 18). In the lungs produces a lot of fluid and mucus is due to the expansion of the alveoli. People coughing up phlegm with blood. Breathing becomes impossible. 50% of BCC (circulating blood volume) passes into the lungs, and increases. The mass of one light can reach 2.5 kg (rate of 500-600 g).
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In severe cases, death in 10-15 minutes. At a poisoning with gas of average weight death occurs within 2-3 days. Recovery may occur 2-3 weeks after poisoning, but this is rare due to the infection.

Hydrocyanic acid

Hydrocyanic acid is a colorless, light and mobile liquid with a strong odor. It blocks the chain promoting oxygen to the tissues, causing tissue hypoxia. The gas affects the nervous system, disrupting the innervation of the organs.

Symptoms of poisoning from breathing:

  • shortness of breath;
  • in the early development of the clinical picture of frequent breathing;
  • when severe intoxication is respiratory depression and stop.

Signs from the heart:

  • slowing of heart beats;
  • increase in blood pressure;
  • vasospasm;
  • with the growth of the symptoms – pressure drop, increased heart rate, acute cardiovascular failure, cardiac arrest.

Poison gas is a strong fast-acting substances. To save the man required emergency resuscitation. In case of favorable outcome the patient needs long rehabilitation treatment.