Acute poisoning: stages and methods of detoxification
The phases and stages of acute poisoning
Acute poisoning – the negative state of the body caused by hazardous substances of different chemical nature. Toxic substances penetrating into the body that can cause functional or structural disturbances of various degrees, manifested General malaise and specific symptoms.
In recent years, acute poisoning are quite frequent. This are different reasons, such as unfavorable environmental conditions in cities, especially large and industrial. More toxic substances through air, food, household remedies enters the body of adults and children, causing various diseases. Poisoning with poisons and toxins can occur through the fault of the man if he had the temerity in contact with the chemical. For example, you can get poisoned with medicines or household chemicals, if illiterate to use them.
Types of acute intoxication are presented next.
- Household (poisoning by household chemicals or alcohol).
- Food (if you eat poor quality food).
- Production (for example, during the violation of safety at work with hazardous substances).
- Environmental (for example, emissions of toxic gases).
- Agricultural (very frequent poisoning caused by the pesticides, organophosphorus and other chemicals).
- Biological (non-edible mushrooms, the bite of poisonous insects or snakes).
- Radiation (for example, with the use of products containing the radionuclides).
- Medical (failure to comply with the dosage of medicines or failure of the medical staff).
- Baby (comes as a result of the negligence of adults).
Toxic substances in the body can get:
- oral (through the mouth);
- through the respiratory tract;
- parenteral (e.g., intravenous);
- through the skin.
The reaction of the organism on the toxic connection depends on many factors. For example, for the development of particular symptoms has the value of the properties of the toxin, the received dose, the way of admission of the poison, the individual condition of the body.
Generally, there are two stages of acute poisoning:
The first stage manifests itself during a specific action of the toxin in the body. Being in the body, the toxin reacts with the chemicals and causes various disorders of the systems and organs. This stage continues as long as the toxic substance is in the body.
The second stage starts its operation after the poison is destroyed in the body to non-toxic metabolites and was removed. In other words, until the toxin leaves the body, it leaves a negative trace, which is manifested in the form of various complications. That is why sometimes poisoning can be complicated by, for example, pulmonary edema or renal-hepatic failure. Complications again depend on the type and actions of toxic substances.
Phase toxicity allocate in order to properly assess the victim’s condition and to provide the necessary assistance. During the first phase of therapy focuses on as quickly as possible to withdraw the toxin from the body and not allow it to penetrate into deeper structures. Also during the first stage, measures are being implemented to ensure proper operation of vital systems and organs of the body subject to the action of the toxin. If came the second phase, the forces directed to the restoration of the structure and functioning of the affected poisonous substances of organs and systems.
Diagnosis and common symptoms
Intoxication of different etiology often have the same signs, so I accurately diagnose the toxin is not always possible. Specific symptoms occur only in some cases of poisoning.
Suspected acute toxic poisoning should occur (to exclude other diseases), if for reasons unknown there are several various ailments from the list:
- the weakness of the body, fever, chills, pallor of skin;
- swelling, burns, cyanosis, and other changes in the skin around the mouth;
- nausea, vomiting, stool disturbances, pain or spasms in the abdomen;
- headache, convulsions, dizziness, loss of consciousness, noises in the ears;
- violation of cardiac rhythm, sudden cardiovascular failure, collapse;
- breathing problems, shortness of breath, laryngeal stenosis, pulmonary edema, brochurea;
- wet or very dry, erythematous skin;
- hepatic and renal failure, anuria, bleeding;
- sweating, cold sweat, salivation, rapid contraction of the pupils, reducing the pressure, hallucinations.
This list contains only the most common symptoms that can occur with intoxication. Depending on the type of chemical the victim can emerge from different violations of organs and systems. For example, during intoxication by carbon monoxide, the victim can feel noise in the ears, nausea of varying degrees, pain in the eyes, urge to vomit, headache. Can join the symptoms of the skin (redness). Severe intoxication with this gas can cause loss of consciousness, coma, and the aiding and abetting cause of death. The same symptoms can be other poisoning, therefore, to determine the exact cause, you need to find out what took the victim or the environment in which he was before (if the patient is conscious).
If the victim lost consciousness, pulse, breath and reaction of pupils are missing, you must waste no time, start cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. After these measures it should be put in lateral position and cover with blankets or clothes, and quickly call an ambulance.
If a poisoned child, then you need to check with parents or relatives, what chemicals or drugs were available. A large clearing in the picture provide laboratory research.
Symptoms of acute intoxication usually occur very quickly. Depending on the type of poisoning the clinical picture can occur immediately or within days.
Common methods of rendering aid in acute intoxications
General principles of treatment involve the neutralization of the poison and restore the body functions. If a toxic substance has got oral, that is through the food channel, it is necessary to perform gastric lavage. This should give the victim to drink water with salt and then induce vomiting. The procedure should be repeated until then, until the stomach will go pure water.
If the victim is unconscious or has food poisoning cauterizing poisons – do not induce vomiting.
As an additional measure, you can do an enema or give a laxative. Well bind toxic substances, chelators, therefore, during intoxication, especially food, need to include these funds in the treatment. As a sorbent it is possible to use activated carbon, enterosgel, POLYSORB or.
If the patient suffered from toxic gases, it is necessary to begin to fresh air. Next, you need to check the victim’s breathing and pulse. If breathing is absent – to make intense artificial respiration. If no pulse – perform CPR.
If contact poisoning, if damaged skin or mucous membranes, it is necessary to treat the affected areas. This should free the land from clothes and to wash with clean water, to quickly remove the toxin.
During first aid without wasting time we need to call the brigade emergency assistance. Further actions depend on the causes of poisoning and the victim’s condition. Symptomatic therapy is directed to stabilize and support the function of vital systems and organs that were subjected to the toxic effects of the substance. This can be used medicines different actions. In severe poisoning performed resuscitation.
Non-specific methods of removal of poisonous substances from the blood
Methods of detoxification can include measures designed to bring intensely from the blood of toxic substances. The main ways are listed below:
- Hemosorption is a modern and effective method for toxin removal from the blood.
- The method of forced diuresis – simple enough, but at the same time, the qualitative method of removing toxic substances from the body. Therapy includes intravenous introduction of therapeutic agents and diuretics.
- Hemodialysis – cleansing the blood through an «artificial kidney».
- Peritoneal dialysis procedure is cleansing the body of toxic substances, is carried out through the abdominal cavity. This method is slower and may cause infection, so in our days, is not often applied.