Analysis for salmonellosis how and where to donate
The main methods of diagnosis of salmonellosis
Salmonellosis is an infectious intestinal disease caused by pathogenic bacteria. To determine the most appropriate etiological treatment is necessary for laboratory confirmation of the infection, as the clinical picture of this disease may resemble other intestinal infectious diseases. In this article, we examined in detail the analysis for salmonellosis, rules for diagnosis and confirmation of the disease, methods of objective evaluation of the severity of the patient and identify his complications.
Description of the disease
Salmonellosis is a bacterial enteric infection. The causative agent, Salmonella is very resistant and tenacious organism. In frozen food it can not only retain their activity for several months, but also to actively proliferate. Once in the water, pathogens live in it 5-6 months, and in the land – more than a year.
The disease is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Ill they can, if consume eggs, dairy and meat products infected with Salmonella. Also for a person contagious are people suffering from Salmonella and had undergone it in the past.
Even healthy people can be contagious. After the transfer of salmonellosis in people can be carriers of Salmonella for some time.
And you can become infected while swimming in ponds, especially in ponds, rivers and lakes, where cattle roam and where birds swim. Animals contaminate the water with Salmonella through their feces.
The clinical picture
Symptoms begin to manifest during the first two days after infection. Most often the disease occurs acutely, appears bright and pronounced signs.
Main clinical symptoms of salmonellosis:
- Hyperthermia. This disease may increase body temperature to 39 degrees.
- General weakness, dizziness, body aches and chills.
- Headache, dizziness.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Abdominal pain, intestinal colic.
- Multiple and profuse diarrhea. Feces if Salmonella liquid has a greenish tint.
- Flatulence and flatulence.
Salmonellosis to treat themselves at home is strictly prohibited. At the first signs of illness you need to call an ambulance, or on your own to go to the hospital, to the infectious Department. No need to be afraid «infectionsi», the risk of catching there some other disease – the minimum.
How to diagnose Salmonella
The diagnosis «a salmonellosis» can be posed only on the basis of laboratory detection of Salmonella. In the first place after hospitalization, the doctor will gather the patient’s detailed medical history, examine it. Then the doctor prescribes a number of laboratory and instrumental examinations. They are conducted to verify the diagnosis and identify complications.
The volume of laboratory and instrumental examination of the patient is determined by the attending doctor. A number of diagnostic techniques necessary for the patient depends on the severity of his condition, its comorbidities and complications.
Anamnesis is the information needed by the doctor for preliminary diagnosis and to provide an overall picture about the patient. Don’t hold anything back and do not hide from the doctor.
If you suspect the patient of salmonellosis, the doctor will need the following patient data:
- A list of consumed foods and dishes in the last 3 days (the incubation period of Salmonella can last several days). Especially important the data about the consumption of eggs, dairy and meat products.
- The start time of the clinical manifestations of the disease.
- The list of complaints, their severity.
- The volume of first aid, patients received before arrival of physicians of SMP.
- Concomitant diseases that the patient suffers. For example, diabetes, kidney stones, hypertension.
- Drugs, which patient accepts constantly.
- The presence of Allergy or hypersensitive to any medicines.
How to take analysis for salmonellosis in children and adults, how to take it, how long is the cultures? The answers to these questions should be obtained from the treating doctor, as the duration of the study and methods of sampling of biological material may vary in different laboratories.
Bacterial analysis for salmonellosis – the most common method detect and confirm the infection. It can be held in private or public laboratories. The attending doctor will give recommendations and tell you where to hand over such analysis. Not all laboratories working in hospitals, it is possible to carry out such specific studies.
Often performed stool tests for Salmonella. Much less use blood, vomit or washings of the stomach. The probability to detect pathogens in the faeces is much higher than in other biological fluids.
Typically, the feces is placed in a special container and delivered as soon as possible to the laboratory. If the material for the research is the blood, take it at the lab. Also blood sampling can be carried out by trained medical staff in the infectious disease Department.
A blood test
A blood test for Salmonella must be 7 days after the beginning of the development of the disease. It can be used to detect antibodies to Salmonella that are produced in the body in contact with them.
This study helps the doctor to assess the dynamics of the disease and the efficacy of the treatment.
Identification of the pathogen helps the physician to make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the right antibiotics. To evaluate the severity of the condition and identify possible complications can be assigned to the following diagnostic tests:
- General analysis of blood leukocyte formula deployed. It helps to identify the patient has a bacterial or viral infection, and anemia. Also the level of hematocrit estimated degree of dehydration. This analysis pass all patients upon admission to the hospital.
- Urinalysis is necessary to evaluate the functional state of the kidneys. Acute renal failure is one of the most frequent and the most severe complications of salmonellosis. When the patient development of kidneys failure, they cease to produce urine.
- Biochemical blood test is conducted to evaluate the state of the liver, pancreas and kidneys. It can be used to identify and electrolyte failure in the body.
- Ultrasound examination of internal organs. Using ultrasound to inspect the condition of the kidneys, liver, gallbladder and pancreas.
- An electrocardiogram can help to identify abnormalities in the heart, arrhythmia. Acute cardio-vascular insufficiency and arrhythmias are a frequent complication of salmonellosis.
Of food research
In the case of mass cases of salmonellosis can be carried out examination of food, who ate the people affected. So throw the food consumed by patients prior to the development of salmonellosis is not necessary.
Treatment of salmonellosis
Treatment of salmonellosis is carried out in the infectious ward. Patients in serious condition and placed in intensive care.
The main components of treatment are listed below:
- Bed rest.
- Diet. For the period of treatment and recovery, the patient should follow a diet. Excludes all fatty, spicy, fried and smoked. All food should be light, not to create a burden for the digestive system.
- Drinking regime. During salmonellosis the patient should drink plenty of fluids. To replenish the lost volume of liquid you can use a special oral rehydration solution (for example, regidron), or mineral water without gas.
- Antibiotics. Their action is directed at the destruction of the causes of the disease – bacteria of Salmonella. They are selected by the attending doctor.
- Enzymes (CREON, Mezim, pankreatin). These drugs help your digestive system recover and begin to operate normally. They partially replace the enzymes necessary for digestion of foods, thus giving the liver and pancreas to recover.
- Intravenous drip solutions are shown in case of dehydration and toxic shock. Also the dropper are introduced for those patients who due to severe vomiting cannot drink liquids.
- Sorbents help to neutralize and remove from the intestine of pathogenic microorganisms and toxins produced them.
- Antispasmodics (nosh-PA, duspatalin, drotaverine) are prescribed for relieving intestinal colic and pain in the abdomen.
- In the case of development of acute renal failure is hemodialysis.
- Drugs with potassium is indicated for arrhythmias caused by electrolyte imbalance.
After the end of treatment the patient held control bacteriological examination of feces, by which is evaluated the effectiveness of the treatment. If the person recovered, but continues to transmit bacteria, it is considered to be a carrier of Salmonella. He is forbidden to work in places where it can infect people, and he transferred temporarily to another job.
Diagnosis of salmonellosis helps the physician to make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate individual treatment. Modern diagnostic techniques allow doctors to detect complications in the early stages, to adjust the condition of the patient. The treatment of the disease is in the infectious ward or in the intensive care unit. Self-treatment of salmonellosis may result in acute cardiac and renal failure, infectious-toxic shock.