As the withdrawal of barbiturates from human body
What is barbiturates and how they excrete
Barbiturates are substances that are derived from barbituric acid. This group of drugs used for a long time. These include hypnotic and sedative medications. Pharmacological action of all these drugs is associated with their effect on certain receptors. In the treatment of some medicines, including pills, the body accumulates a certain amount of barbiturates, which can skew the results. Not all people know exactly what kind of substances and so few people know how to get out of the body barbiturates.
Mechanism of action
Barbiturates differ in their action from many of tranquilizers and hypnotics. The characteristics of these drugs include:
- Effects on the nervous system depends solely on the dose. In small doses, barbiturates produce a light calming effect. In slightly larger doses act as a sedative, and in large doses as a drug.
- With continuous use there is a possibility of addiction. Dependence can be both physical and mental.
- Overdose symptoms may occur even with a small excess of the therapeutic dose.
- Removal of barbiturates from the body very slowly. The effects can be observed even after a single ingestion of tablets or drops. In the case of the medication in the evening, in the morning often there is fatigue, pain in the neck and abnormal drowsiness.
- Barbiturates affect sleep. Because of these drugs, the phase of the so-called REM sleep becomes very short. Which ultimately leads to nervous disorders.
As drugs on the basis of a barbiturate stay in the body for a long time, it is very easy to poisoning. Overdose of these substances poses a great danger to humans, as there is a greater probability of death. Overdose can be accidental, failure to follow doctor’s recommendations and deliberate with the purpose of suicide.
The human body quickly gets used to drugs with barbiturates. People who take a long sedative and anti-anxiety medications, may find that they need all large doses.
The most frequently recorded cases of poisoning with Phenobarbital or drugs containing this substance. Phenobarbital is characterized by prolonged action, and this property is widely used in medical practice. Drug used as a sedative and anticonvulsant. Most commonly prescribed medication for patients with epilepsy.
Phenobarbital is implemented in the pharmacy network on prescription, but at a fairly reasonable price, this may explain the frequent cases of poisoning with this substance.
The clinical picture of poisoning with barbiturates is divided into 4 stages, each of them has its symptoms:
- Stage of sleepiness. In this stage the patient is apathetic, he has a partial no response to external stimuli. But the patient can adequately answer questions and not losing touch with the outside world.
- Stage of superficial coma. The patient is unconscious, his impaired swallowing and can pick up the language. The cough reflex may be weakened or absent altogether. People in this state practically does not react to pain, pupils may be slightly dilated. For some time, you may experience febrile fever.
- Deep coma, or barbituric coma. Reflexes the patient is almost completely absent. Central nervous system is strongly suppressed. Due to this, possible paralysis of the respiratory center. This is a very dangerous condition in which a patient needs immediate assistance. If respiratory depression very quickly irreversible consequences in the lungs and bronchi;
- Awakening. Phenobarbital is excreted from the human body slowly and gradually recovering consciousness. Can be excessive anxiety, which may be replaced by a long sleep. After the person completely wakes up, he may experience unstable mood, tearfulness and irritability.
The fourth stage not always comes on their own, if people will take a lethal dose of a drug, he must be assisted to exit the coma.
When barbituric coma disrupted the heart, pressure is greatly reduced, and the pulse is not bugged.
How you can bring the barbiturates
At poisoning with barbiturates victim you need to very quickly provide first aid. Withdraw Phenobarbital from the body and other drugs in this drug group can be due to such medical procedures:
- The victim washed stomach. To remove residual drug, which has not yet had time to be absorbed into the bloodstream. If the person is conscious, give him to drink plenty of water, and then artificially induce vomiting, but the best option would be to wash using a specific probe. Gastric lavage through the probe should only health workers, as this procedure has its own quirks.
- When the stomach is washed, the patient is given sorbents. You can give enterosgel, activated charcoal or APSCO. If you use activated carbon, previously ground into powder and diluted a small volume of water.
- To quickly remove barbiturates from the cavity of the intestine, the victim do a saline enema.
To reduce the level of barbiturates in blood and to accelerate their withdrawal by the kidneys, the patient is prescribed to drink plenty of liquids and diuretics. To enhance the diuretic effect and to reduce the level of barbiturates in the body, intravenous glucose and saline.
Special antidote exists, but can be used sodium thiosulfate. If there is any doubt as to what substance triggered the poisoning, flumazenil is injected, which can be considered an antidote to benzodiazepines.
Barbiturates in the urine can be easily determined with the help of special tests. This is very useful for diagnosis, when the substance that caused the poisoning in question.
The mechanism of the sedative effects of barbiturates on a person very specific. Under the influence of these substances in the human body undergoes various pathological changes. If poisoning therapeutic measures should be aimed not only at removing barbiturates from the body, but also to maintain the important organs and systems.
Of symptomatic treatment should be antihypoxic funds, respiratory analeptics and hormones.
After the patient’s condition is normalized a little, solve the issue with his food. If human consciousness is disturbed, then arrange for food through a soft probe. It should be remembered that in the administration of barbiturates in bedridden patient quickly pressure ulcers formed, which were difficult to recover, must therefore be taken measures to prevent this condition.