Botulinum toxin: what it is, what is used
Where to use botulinum toxin
Botulinum toxin is a poison of protein origin. When ingested, it provokes disturbances in the transmission of nerve impulses in muscle tissue, is fraught with paralysis. However, no muscle or nerve cells do not die. Produced by specific bacteria — Clostridium botulinum. Enters the body with food, especially with a twist of home cooking.
Poisoning (botulism) is accompanied by pathological and dangerous lesions of the nervous system. If measures are not taken on time, the disease can lead to death. According to statistics, mortality occurs in approximately 50 cases out of 100.
Varieties of botulinum toxin
Medicine knows several types, they differ among themselves in chemical composition and immunological properties. Botulinum toxin has no smell, no taste, is the most complex protein compound that to this day can synthesize any living organism. Toxic substances not yet identified, the average lethal dose — LD50. Botulotoxin type A is the most dangerous poison of synthetic origin. Dioxide, for example, is weaker than it 70 thousand times. The effect of botulinum toxin the longest. This is the first toxic poison, which appeared on the pharmaceutical market.
What drugs contains basic properties
Drugs containing botulinum toxin type A:
These medications, despite the fact that are considered «twins», are the differences in the composition and pattern of use.
Properties, which are characterized by drugs:
- Good resistance to the action of proteolytic enzymes, particularly, trypsin, or pepsin.
- Resistance to acidic stomach contents.
- Low resistance to quick action inactive bases.
- Botulinum toxins are destroyed by heat.
- Good resistance to very low temperatures.
Formed in foodstuffs of plant or animal origin, which are stored for a long period of time. In other words – not fresh food.
After each injection with toxin needles and syringes should be disposed of in specialized places intended for the disposal of biological waste. Just throw them in the trash is strictly prohibited.
Indications for use
Modern medicine uses the botulinum toxin in the treatment of muscle tissue that are found in pathological conditions:
- strabismus (a squint);
- spastic torticollis;
- Chipboard (from 2 years);
- focal dystonia;
- dystonia of the extremities;
- tremor of the limbs;
- anal fissure;
- spasms in the sphincter of the rectum;
- local hyperhidrosis.
There are some very rare diseases in which the use of botulinum toxin type A — hemagglutinin complex, as the only proper therapeutic method. The drug is used by physicians in the treatment of:
- prostatic hyperplasia;
- muscle tension;
- the myoclonus of the palate.
Latest list of diseases provides before use of a neurotoxin for additional research on the effectiveness of the drug. In cosmetics is used in the treatment of facial wrinkles and correcting facial and other body parts.
Prescribed medicines with botulinum toxin solely by doctors with specific skills. The introduction of the substance must be in proper medical conditions under strict medical supervision.
Botulinum toxin preparations and the content has a fixed number of contraindications:
- age less than 18 years of age;
- disease Lambert-Eaton;
- pregnancy and breast-feeding period;
- local inflammation;
- intolerance to the components.
- previous Allergy to the drug;
- loss of sensation of the skin partial or full;
- hernia for centuries;
- angle-closure glaucoma;
- myopia of high degree;
- somatic diseases in the acute stage;
- menstrual cycle.
The whole list of additional contraindications count impossible. To allow or deny the procedure of administration of funds can only be a doctor after the interview of the patient and proper research.
Possible side effects
Botulinum toxin is considered to be a poisonous substance, but the side effects from its use are very rare. Deaths were only the result of the drug for persons under 16 years of age. Common complications:
- Burning and itching at the site of puncture.
- Redness and swelling around the injection site.
- Bleeding at the injection site.
- A migraine or a headache after the procedure.
- The tightness of the skin.
- Rashes on the skin.
- Reduced sensation, slight numbness.
- Vomiting, diarrhea.
- The tearfulness.
- Fear of bright light.
- A split in the eyes.
If at least one of the following symptoms happen, the doctor prescribes some kind of medication to overcome it.
Adverse events are local in nature and can disappear on their own throughout the month.
Definition of toxin in foods, preventing poisoning in the home
To detect botulinum toxin in foods are of biological samples is the most accurate and effective way to prevent infection by natural means, to warn people from botulism. To preventive measures include:
- Sanitary procedure of companies working with meat or fish.
- Strict adherence to the regime and the rules of sterilization of canning production.
- Products of questionable quality should be subjected to a good heat treatment. Botulinum toxin is destroyed at high temperature (not lower than 100 degree).
Home canning is becoming more popular and demand. In this regard there is active promotion of the sanitary requirements of the process:
- Sealing of canned mushrooms is unacceptable.
- In products with low level of acidity you need to add acetic acid.
- Refuse possible from the home canning of meat products.
Compliance with these rules will significantly reduce the risk of botulism.
Therapy for poisoning toxin
The treatment of the disease involves the introduction protivobotulinicheskoy serum. A scheme is not, in each case, the doctor will prescribe a specific therapy for each patient individually. The serum is administered intravenously, the physician or nurse must abide by the rules, prevent the development of anaphylactic phenomena. To test the sensitivity of the patient to the serum is mandatory.
Before treatment the patient undergoes a complete diagnostic and laboratory tests, which necessarily samples are taken from urine, vomit, if the poisoning is accompanied by nausea, and the washing water from the stomach. Sometimes in therapy you need antibiotics, and assign them to themselves can not, must be done by an experienced physician.